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                                                    BETWEEN LIES AND REALITY

All the rights are reserved for the author Mosalam shaltout, where this book was published in Arabic in the monthly journal "El-Allem" (Science) on three parts at July, Augusts, September, 1998, Cairo, Egypt.

                                                             Revised Edition: Dep.No.4420/2003

The most extraordinary tendency related to the building of the Pyramids and in which era they were built? It's the tendency that suggested “The people of Atlantis continent, which some peoples' legends talked about, and that lived according to these legends between the year 10,000-15,000 B.C. after the continent had slipped down from its position and the life became impossible, this people migrated reinforced with progressive technology, this people inhabited two areas, the first part which known today as Mexico and neighboring area. The other part which is known today as Egypt, in both sites they setup a new and great civilization, which their trace are still existed up to date”.The tendency also suggested the Pyramids of Giza were built from 10,000 to 15,000 B.C !!!!

This tendency suggested the people of ancient Atlantis continent disappeared from the history. This people had its own monuments here and there such as Giza Pyramids and Sphinx. The reason of its disappearance of owing to ice drifting to the earth ten thousand years ago (late ice-age). The tendency also suggested that the ancient Egyptians inherited some technological knowledge from the advanced culture of Atlantis people which flourished before the late ice-age. According to this theory the Pyramids of Giza were not built by Cheops and his dynasty, and Chephren didn't build the sphinx and both of them were much older.

At the beginning of nineties, and the end of 20th century , the theory has become the most dangerous theory which quaked the ancient Egyptian civilization from its Pharaonic roots and attributed it to other peoples, why ?!!!

Today there is a great scientific tendency (astronomical and geological) urge to inquire about the roots of the ancient Egyptian Culture and extracting an explanation for the miracle of the Pyramids and other wonders for the Egyptian culture in very far bygone and exactly in 11,ooo B.C.

The most remarkable person who is responsible for that tendency is the American researcher (John Anthony West) where he quoted in his book (Serpent in the sky) Egyptian civilization was not a development, it was a legacy. Who concentrated in his researches on Sphinx, the valley temple, and the Osirion in Abydos. Robert Schacht Professor of Geology in Boston University has confirmed the estimation of John West about the age of the sphinx suggests that Chephren merely restored the monument, possibly replacing the original leonine head with a likeness of his own face . The American Society of Geology has also adapted the opinions of John West officially in its conference in 1992, in the land of cow boy civilization and Blue Jeans Culture, where USA want to spread it in the world by force (starting by Iraq (Mesopotomia) the land of the dawn of Mankind Civilization, and Baghdad the city of the dawn of Islamic Civilization).

John West criticized the prevailing theory which suggests that the development of human culture is (linear) that's to say it has developed gradually from the primitive life of cave to the intelligent and civilized period. There was an evidence that indicated the sphinx is several thousand years older than what it was thought by the archaeologists. And it was thousand years precedents to the age of dynasty that means. There was an advanced civilization was found in a very old and precedent period from the history and in the same way that inherited legends referred to the French mathematician R.A. Schwaller de Lubicz has explored the region of Luxor and found some evidence indicated that the culture there was more advanced in sciences and culture than what we have already thought. He also indicated, that Egypt was struck by floods and heavy rains in 11,000 B.C., and the sphinx exposed to hydro wearing, that's to say: Egypt has enjoyed a great civilization before the sphinx, he assured that Egypt conceal the monument of its civilization under its dust.

The astronomer L. Fillipoff, claims to have discovered new facts in old fifth-to sixth-dynasty pyramid texts, which connect the god Thoth or Tehuti with the Zodiacal sign of cancer. Fillipoff assumes Thoth to have been a culture bearer from a land in the west, who made his appearance when the vernal equinox was in cancer on or around 7256 BC. When those arrived on Egyptian soil he was greatly moved by the people’s lack of education and law, so he and his companions set about teaching them science, religion, art and music. This suggests that the world was into the 1256th year (or thereabouts) of the age of cancer at or around the time of Thoth’s visit, the intimation being that Thoth and, no doubt, those people who came from “a land in the west” who were later defied, were missionaries and colonists from Atlantis. The Denderah Zodiac is a circular map of the heavens showing the sings of the zodiac as they were seen and understood of the Egyptians in ancient times, with particular emphases on the signs of cancer and Leo. The temple of Denderah was erected by the Ptolemies in the first century BC upon the site of an earlier temple. Its hieroglyphics declare it to have been constructed “according to the plan laid down in the time of the companions of Horus”, that is to say well before the beginnings of dynastic Egypt.

John West added that the sphinx considers an evidence on existing an ancient civilization that established these lofty edifices, above all John West thought the statue of the sphinx at the beginning was not having a human face, but a lion's one, as the rest of its body, and amending the face took place at utmost at in true the age of the pharaoh Chephren, the great part of the Pyramid of Chephren was built in its turn, in the time of building the sphinx.

In 1993, an Engineer was newly joined Egyptology called Robert Bauval, he was civil engineer, British nationality, Belgium rooted, had a book titled "The ORION Mystery" he mentioned in this book in 10500 B.C., two rare astronomical events took place in the sky of ancient Egypt, one of them took place accidentally, the second only took place once every ten thousands of years, the two "incidents" are:

(1) The milky way that extends from the north to the south of the heaven dome has taken accidently a shape corresponding to the North South water course of the Nile valley to extent began from the hill of Giza as if it were a complete copy, and a true image of the milky way, in fact the Milky way seemed to be celestial Nile.

(2) To the South of the milky Way, the three stars of ORION belt reached the nearest point to the earth in its rotation which takes place once every 26000 years. When the orion's belt star Al-Nitak was the brightest, and nearest one in the group it stands in the middle of the meridian (North-South circle) before crossing this circle.

These incidents attracted the attention of the ancient, as it was the sport which created the religious creed of stars, and a system of architecture that rarely takes place today, so Robert Bauval attributes the building of Giza Pyramids and Sphinx to 10500 B.C All these scientists hope that they will enable someday to find an evidence for an older civilization related to the period 15000 to 10000 B.C. buried under the ground or may be under the Mediterranean which was terra firma (land) during the late ice-age.

Murry Hope in her book (Atlantis : Myth or Reality?) mentioned that: In commenting on the art technique used by the ancient Egyptians for producing inlaid eyes on their statuary, John West brings to our attention that the very early examples found to date are blue or grey-eyed rather than brown-eyed. Strangely enough, I also noticed that the traditional Eyes of Ra which were later allocated to Horus, Bast and other deities were also depicted with a blue pupil. Considering the fact that the indigenous population of those parts was almost exclusively brown-eyed, the original art work which served as a model for later copies must have obviously represented a people whose eyes were predominantly blue or gray. The same applies to blood groups , of which I have made an extensive study in relation to the subject matter of Atlantis!!!

Also, she added, since Egyptologists appear to be so sure that there is no evidence of an advanced technology in pre-dynastic Egypt, from where or from whom did the ancient Egyptians cull their knowledge of mathematics and astronomy? It has been postulated that, prior to the rise of historically acknowledged cultures of ancient Egypt, a great civilization existed, the science and technology of which exceeded even our present-day achievements. However, when a freak of nature conspired to obliterate its homeland, all that remained were folk memories which slowly degenerated into legendary myths and superstitions!!

Also, she said: according to Herodotus, who received his material from the Egyptian priests, their written history dated back 11.340 years before his area, or nearly 14.000 year prior to the present!!! The philosopher Proclus (AD 412-482) mentions the travels of a Greek named Grantor, who visited Sais and was shown a certain column in the temple of Neith, complete with hieroglyphics, which recorded not only the history of predynastic Egypt, but also that of the country from which those people hailed who brought their culture to the shores of Egypt in those distant times-Atlantis!!!

The Egyptian priests effected a translation for Crantor, and their account was in full agreement with that quoted by Plato in the Timaeus, with which they were familiar. Although Egyptologists claim that they know of no such pillar, or the existence of any texts relating to the Atlantis episode, this is hardly a conclusive argument; Atlantis could have been mentioned many times in the innumerable documents that were lost when the vast libraries were burned and pillaged by the fanatical zeolots of the new faiths that were ultimately to take hold in Europe and the middle East. Dare we hope that some priceless scroll, which will supply us with the necessary details, may yet be found in the archaic ruins of some ancient mud or capsule theory so beloved of modern metaphysicists and fringe scientists, the answer must be , Yes!!!

But now as we are Egyptians and grand sons of the pharaohs, what is our reply?

The ancient Egyptians only built these and constructed these edifices and any analysis or study for thousands of paintings and drawings which belonged to the ages of pharaohs show how they were built? All doubts related to this matter are motivated by political considerations and suspicious attitudes and derived from the racial motives, and they are racial trials to steal the efforts of the Egyptian people as it place to the literature these books contained and related to the civilizations roots were stolen and attributed to other peoples, as it includes a frame of systematic process to steal the history.

Before mentioning the evidence that refute these false accusation about the ancient Egyptian civilization, and the ancient Egyptians we re-going to deal several evidence to what these racialists fancy to prove and assure their theory.

The evidence relied on that there is no sign to point out that the fourth dynasty has built them as the official Egyptology said. There is no mummies for any pharaoh belongs to this fourth dynasty to which building the Pyramids stuck to its home.

(2)The great engineering achievement in ancient Egypt in a period next to neolethic age directly (8000 to 5000 B.C).

(3) The existence of great boats in the western deser

(4) Natural an hydro corrosion factors that appeared on the sphinx although it was buried under the sand for long time which extended for the last five thousand years and that indicated it was sculptured when the wet climate prevailed in Egypt, and that characterized the Egyptian territories about ten thousand years ago.

(5) The sign of hydro wearing on some stones of the temple neighboring the pyramid of Chephren.

(6) The great similarity between the Egyptian, Mexican and Peruvian civilizations, in addition to the similarity related to the Pyramids and the shape of building between Egypt and the other two countries in middle and South America, the similarity exceeded to the symbols and the meaning behind these edifices, the first symbol, three mexican pyramids of TUTT hwa Kan region are main as the same in Giza. Two pyramids from the three in both sites are parallel to imaginary straight line pass in the middle. In both sites the third is divergent to the left outside.

The Pyramids in both countries relied on ancient main texts and the paintings belong to places where men can be transformed into Gods. From the human nature to divine nature.

(7) the ancient Egyptian "religion" believed in the creed of astro-resurrection as the ancient Mexican did. In the tomb of (double convention) that belongs a king of Tecal city that belonged to Maya, that ruled in the eighth century there were paintings represented the Journey of resurrection by a boat. These paintings are similar to the paintings that decorate the pharaohs tombs in the kings valley as temple of Tohetmus the third that belonged the eighteenth dynasty in Egypt. The excavators found great ground paintings one of these paintings was known as NAZCA spider which indicated specially (Orion tower) , and the straight line which form consecutive layers indicate the change in divergence of the stars of Orion tower belt.

Now we offer an evidence that refute these false accusations about the ancient Egyptian civilization and the ancient Egyptians, as a scientific honesty and the national loyalty for the dust of Egypt, its history and its great glory.


First: The history of building the pyramids by using radiant carbon (C14).

The radiant carbon laboratory in the Southern Methodist University financed by (U.S National Science Foundation), and (Eidgenossiche Technische Hochschule) laboratory financed by (Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research and Swiss National Science Foundation) to study the history of Giza region where (the Pyramids and the Sphinx ) are in the eighties of 20th century by using the radiant carbon.

They have extracted the following results as they were mentioned in original report which was issued by the American Research Center in Egypt and published in a conference held in the Capital of France "Paris" specially for this (purpose).

Only wood and carbonized sample belongs to the great Pyramid of Cheops and returns to 3809 B.C. It was discovered at the South West corner, the round 198 in the Pyramid.

Another thirteen samples belongs to nearer rounds (3090-2853) B.C.

Wood and carbonized samples from Chephren Pyramid belongs to the period 3196 to 2733 B.C.

Wood and carbonized sample from Mykrinos pyramid belongs to the period 3076-2067 B.C.

Two wood and carbonized samples for the sphinx taken from the same site belongs to the period (2746-2985 B.C).

This means that the tests of the radiant carbon doesn't agree to the opinions which said the Pyramids of Giza were built in a period precendent to the history of the fourth dynasty in the year (2680-2560 B.C.). In the same time it indicated that it's difficult to mention a definite and final date for building the Pyramids.

Secondly: Laser measures for air shaft in the great pyramid.

In 1993 the German engineer called Rodolf Gaten Brink, robots specialist, was appointed by the German Institute of Antiquities in Cairo to solve the problem of the increasing humidity inside the great Pyramid. He could solve the problem by making the humidity rate inside the pyramid equal to the humidity rate outside, he put two fans in the air shafts of "Pharaoh Chamber", but his scientific curiosity drove him to design a small robot and called him (UBO out-2) it meant road conqueror in Hieroglyphic to explore the small passage inside the South air shaft in the Queen chamber and it was thought that it was only extended to several metres, the archaeologists think thought that this aperture extends to a few metres. But it was a surprise the robot continue walking forward, sending the photo by video to the control center, until it crashed into a dome then it went through to a distance of 65 metres before it stands in front of small tile, its length is not more than 20 cm, its width 20 cm (square tile), two copper handles were fixed on it, there was a little crack which allowed light of the searching robot to pass through it, that indicated that there is a space behind, and consequently a room.

The same exciting experiment repeated in 17 September 2002 by American Robot, by Finance from International Geographic TV Channel in cooperation with the Supreme Council of Antiquities in Cairo, Egypt. Where, the Robot went to 65 meter’s through the south air shaft in the Queen chamber and made a hole by a small drill in the limestone square tile (20x20 cm), and then sending the photo by video camera to the control center. The photos show that, after 21cm exactly from the square tile, there is another one from clay, with many chraks in it. The expected room did not found. The pharaohs are still the winners by their simple technology on us with our modern and progressive technology in the 21th century, where the secret is still secret. Really, they were Pharaohs, and deserve our appreciation as outstanding people, and great grandfathers for us, with the honour.

Now, the meaning of finding two copper handles, one of them was broken into pieces on the tile that was found at the end south aperture passage in the Queen's chamber.

The date of building the pyramids belong to copper age which extends from 5000 to 3500 B.C.

The measure of the laser ray that the German engineer Rodolf GATENBRINK has proved during his exciting experiments that building the aperture inside the pyramid returns to 2600 B.C the estimation may be 150 years more or less this date agrees to the age of the fourth dynasty (2680-2569) B.C. but, how do we attribute the building of pyramids to the legendary people of Atlantis which disappeared according to legend in the late ice-age that extended from 60,000 to 10,000 B.C.

Third, The similarity aspects between the king Chephren and the face of the sphinx !

All sources agreed and said the face of the Sphinx was built at the age of the fourth dynasty according to the order of Chephren, the Pharaoh who ruled Egypt after the death of his father, the king Cheops, the Archaeologists turned to the statues of Chephren pharaoh, to search for the similarity between the king and the face of the Sphinx, they turned to the most famous statue which was sculptured from the black durite and kept in one of the hall in ground floor in Cairo Egyptian Museum, one of Egyptologist called Mark Lous from the Oriental Institute in Chicago University performed an exciting experiment at the beginning of the eighties of 20th century, he used photographs and drawing by using the computer for this pharaoh trying to find the similarity between Chephren and the Sphinx.

During this process the Sphinx photographs were transformed to relief digital statements, they determined 2.6 milion points on the surface of the statue and marked the statement to add or cover the skeleton with skin, this Archaeologist turned to several photos of the pharaohs and other statues of the sphinx to help him in this process, but only the photo of Chephren granted the sphinx lively look (lively impression).

The element that proves the strong engineering relation between the Sphinx and the pyramids. That they turn towards the east symmetrically with untouchable difference. The observer on the hill of Giza at the Summer Solstice (21 June), will observe the sun rise at 28o north east and also at the Winter Solstice (21 December) will observe the sun rise at 28o south east. That means that there is an angle equals 56o between the two solstices. But the observer will observe equinox in the middle on looking to the east directly (21 March and 21 September, every year). This allow to cut the triangle into four sectors at 14o for each consequently the observer will observe the points of sunrise centrlized at the middle between every solstice and equinox. Or at (14o north east and 14o south east) successively.

Accordingly the annual apparent sun orbit was divided into four sectors each indicates an important astronomical point which is accurately determined, and is separated by angle equal 14o.

It's observed that the passage leads to the third pyramid exactly turns to the east such as the Sphinx and the second pyramid which points to 14o declination towards south east, the great pyramid passage that turns 14o towards north east.

Fourth: Astro religion at the Pharaohs.

The ancient Egyptian specially consecrated (Orion group) which were known as SAHO to the pharaohs, and known to the Arabs as (GABAR, refering to Orion) and Sirius which was known as (Sothic) to the Pharaohs and Al Shairra to the Arabs. Because if it rised from the direction of sunrise (the Helical rising of Sirius) that indicated the Nile will be flood, where it is the source of life.

Bradley Schaefer from Yale University Published in the Journal “History of Astronomy” No. 31 at 2000 that: currently, Egyptologists use dates for the helical rise of Sirius derived by the “arcus visions” method going back to Ptolemy through the work of Schoch. The latest works have no improvements upon the older work.

Astronomy has made great advances, both observationally and theoretically, since the time of Scoch. In particular , the old rule-of-tumb based on the arcus visions is now known frequently to lead to large errors that invalidate many old conclusions. More importantly, a reliable theoretical model of the physical and physiological processes has been constructed and verified with extensive observational tests. Also critical, extinction coefficients can be established for ancient Egypt with error bars. With these advances, modern astronomers can calculate the dates of Sirius’s helical rise to a much greater accuracy than was possible by the old rules-of-thumb.

Dr. Rolf Krauss from the Pre-History Museum in Berlin-Germany, offered an analysis (at the Oxford VI conference in La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain) of the helical rise of Sirius based on the Illahun papyri in an effort to improve the absolute chronology in the early second millennium B.C.

There is a collaboration between the author and Dr. Rolf Krauss to observe the helical rise of Sirius at Aswan in the Upper Egypt during the summer of 2003.

From the astronomical point of view it is connected to its appearance with (Orion group) which rises before it. This group is connected to Osoris the first legendary king in Egypt. This king was killed and temporarily its mumny revived for a short time to enable his wife Isis to give birth and be the inheritor of Egypt, then he ascended to the heavens and staye there up from that day on, Osoris became the God of the hereafter, when his wife Isis die in its turn transformed to Sirius.

Sirius lies directly under Orion and it's his constant companion on uprising and setting, as the wife is acompanion to her husband that foretell us the Nile flood is coming soon, accompanied with the life resurrection. The writings known as the main texts of the Pyramids which were discovered inside the pyramids belong to the fifth and sixth Dynasties 30 km south from Giza pyramids point. Specially the pyramid of king Wanes indicate the relation between the kings and stars. We can get benefit from these main text that some pyramids have really named as some stars. For example the red pyramid built in Dahshour by Snifrau, the father of Cheops name after (Snifrau the radiant), also the curved pyramid (the hmped) in Dahshur and Abu Rawash pyramid which were mentioned with the name of Goodif Raa, and Sahedo star.

Sahou and Sahedo is a region in the sky belongs to the (Orion group) according to the pharaonic religion. There are also main texts point frankly to the pharaoh accompanied with phrases associated him to the stars (you, the great star, the companion of Saho), Here it is (Osoris) has ascended to Saho.

On the king …. (the heaven became conceived to you with Saho) they imagined Orion in a shape of human and male body and similar to Osoris " as it's thought), there are several paintings for Saho belongs to the modern kingdom specially in (Sinmout) tomb and on the ceiling of the southern chamber where it appears in a shape of a man stand on a boat carrying (key) a symbol of life in a hand and the mace (king's staff) in the other, over his head there were three big stars arranged successively the top star inclined little to the left. No doubt that the three stars Zeta Orion, Epsilon Orions and Delta Orion represent the stars of Orion’s belt which take the same order and arrangement as they are in Orion’s group. It's worth to mention that the order and arrangement in Orion's group is not changed from the ground visible aspect since the age of the pyramids (2700-2150) B.C the phrases in the pharaonic texts which address the pharaoh, as a king in this picture was great.

The heaven conceived to you side by side with Saho, the light of down would carry you with Saho and you would ascend regularly with Saho from the east side of the heaven, you would descend regularly at the west side of the heaven with Saho" ! the king you're the great star, you companion of Saho, you cross the heaven with Saho and sail to the hereafter with Saho, you extend at the east side of the heaven, after you had renovated and rejuvenated in the definite season and definite time. The four shafts in the great pyramid lead to the basic paharaonic religion the south shaft in the king's chamber turns to Orion's group and definitely to the orbit's star known as "ZETA Orions" the south Shaft in Queen's chamber lies under King's chamber turns directly to Sirius star.

The north shaft in the king's chamber turns directly to the snake's star (Alphadragons). The north shaft in the Queen's chamber turn to Coushap star.

The ever lasting shake of the earth is a unique and characterized matter, the earth cycle around the pole of the ecliptic (precission of the equinox). Which represent one of two points 90o on the north, and 90o to the south of the circle that represent the annual and visible course of the sun in the heavenly dome, push the points of spring equinox 21 March and turned to the north to move from zodiac to another in the zodiac circle 1o for 72 years, and 30o for the complete zodiac in 2160 years, or 4320 to complete 60o, whereas the round movement that the shaking determine take 26,000 years until it get perfect.

Regarding to the earth shaking, now the four shafts no longer turn to the four sacred stars that were above mentioned stars moved away from its position due to the shaking since the period of building the pyramids up to date. So if we have used a computerized program to calculate the degree of moving these stars away from their original position "location" at the moment of building the pyramids. In this way we can get the conclusion for the period of building the pyramids, from this astronomical fact it's 2600 B.C, and this what agree to the estimated time for building the pyramids according to the Egyptologists.

The Historian of Architecture Kate Spence in the Faculty of Oriental Studies, Cambridge University has also proved that and published it in the magazine “Nature”, the edition of the half of November 2000.

The theory of Kate Spence depend on the following :

At present , Earth’s rotational axis happens to point more or less in the direction of the bright star Polaris , which , maturally , is called the pole star. The apparent distance between Polaris and the north celestial pole is currently about 0.75 (45 arcminutes).

But this misalignment changes over time because Earth’s axis is not fixed in space . In a period of some 26,000 years ,it traces out a large circle , a motion that astronomers call “precession”. During the days of the ancient Egyptians, Polaris way far from the true celestial Pole. Back then , Thuban , in the Constellation Draco the Dragon , way closer to the pole , but not close enough to serve as an accurate compass . But more or less on opposite sides of Thuban , there are two stars that , according Spence , were used to mark true north the first one Kochab ( which , apart from Polaris is the brightest star in the Dipper ) ; the other is Misar , the middle star in the handle of the Big Dipper .

If You correct precisely for the precession of Earth ,s axis and for the very small proper motion of the stars across the sky , you can easily calculate that in 2467 B.C., the imaginary line connecting Kochab and Misar so in 2467 B . C , it way not very difficult to find true north using a plumb line , you would just wait for the moment when one of the two stars way exactly above the other . If both stars are eclipsed by the plumb line , this same line also points exactly toward the north .

Because, of the precession of the Earth ,s axis, this method is not fully accurate in the period before and after 2467 B . C . So if you use Kochab and Misar to determine the direction of true north,

You are left with small deviation , which are greater for large time difference from 2467 B. C.

Could this be the solution to the alignment riddle ? Spence is convinced it is, and many Egyptologists agree with her. The Great pyramids of Cheops exhibits a slight westward deviation of a few arcminutes. That can be explained if construction commenced in 2478 B C ( 11 years before Kochab , Misar , and the north celestial pole were exactly in line ). For pyramids built still earlier , this westward deviation is larger , pyramids that were built later show an increasing deviation toward the east. From the chronology of Egyptian Pharaohs , the time intervals between the various pyramids are precisely known , and working from the year 2478 B. C. for the Great pyramid , every thing seems to fall into place.

Commenting in the same issue of Nature, Astronomer and Historian Professor Owen Gingerich of the Harvard – Smith sonian Center for Astrophysics describes Spence,s theory as an “ingenious solution”.

Fifth: The theories of the Geological movement.

There are three theories related to the geological movement which cause some parts from the earth crust to move from place to another. The theory of (Continental Drift) says that the global (the earth) was only one immense continent and broke into plates, and these plates moved to its recent position.

There is the tectonic theory which managed to explain a lot of the geological phenomenon which the first theory failed to explain it (the word tectonic means the science of forming the earth crust).

The Third Theory (Earthcrust displacement) according to this theory the earth crust crawled away from its place because of the earth rotation.

Hankok thought that one of these factors (Continental Drift - tectonic - Earth crust displacement) has pushed the Continent of Atlantis to be slowly eroded to south pole region according to the theory of Charles Habgwood about earth crust. Habgwood has published it in the last of fifties of 20th Century in a book containing a map for Lequin Modland in south pole region, It's known that the region is covered with snow so the elevations aren’t visible.

All modern (geodesic) and Geophysics studies which depended on measurements and observation’s on progressive ground and space technology have proved that the movement of earth crust is several millimeter to several centimeters per year from one place to another in the earth and not more than 9 cm per year at the utmost estimation at any way, as mentioned in (Geology Made Simple) by William Mattews, Heinemann, London, UK.

That means the Atlantis continent moved only 90 km in million years, or 180 km in two million years at utmost estimation, this movement doesn't lead to a great change in the climate that can cause harm to its inhabitants leaving the region for the very cold weather towards the south pole continent according to the legend. Most Geological, biological and climatic studies assure that the reasons for life got suitable on the earth since 600 million years ago. There is the atmosphere with its air that is suitable to breathe hydrosphere which contain water that potable, the climate got mild and be endurable and suitable for all the living creatures that started to move into the water, and on the surface of the earth. Thus, the ancient period of life has begun and lasted for about 375 million years when different ages succeeded, these ages were called the ages of the invertebrate, the ages of fish aquatic creatures, amphibians, Polypod forests, and insects.

Then a new period has begun after it and named the middle life this period lasted for about 155 million years. It was famous for its gigantic reptiles which spread on the earth, and make it a theatre for its invasion. Finally, the periods of modern life have begun 70 million years ago these periods were named after the age of mammals and flowering plants, near of the end of this age man appeared (Homo habilis), that was 2.5 million years ago according to the traditional scenario of the biology all the human being, belonged to one species, this species lived on the east and south of Africa, then its sons scattered into different parts of the earth. The first skull for (Homo erectus) was found in the east of Africa and it's dated to 600 thousand years, which discovered in the old way Gorge in Tanzania, which oldest than the man of east Africa (Zinjanthroups Boisei) which discovered in 1959 in Olduvai Gorge and its dated to 200 thousands years. In 1891 Java Homo erectus was discovered near to Ternile village in Java Island , and its dated to 400-500 thousand years .

In 1992, the world magazine (Nature) reported that two archaeologists one of them was Chinese and other was French, the two Archaeologists preferably decided that the two skulls which were found belonged to one species and lived in the period that was precedent to the recent man of today that's to say 350 thousand years ago, they assured that the two skulls belong to (Homo erectus), they take after to a great degree the human skull who live in Asia at the moment.

In Europe the Heidelberg Man (Homo Heidelbergensis) was discovered near Heidelberg city in the South of Germany, and its dated to 450 thousands year. in 1856 the Neanderthal man (The midway between Homo erectus and Homo sapines) was discovered in the Neanderthal Valley in the North-West of Germany. He was a cave – man, and good maker for his articles from stones, and he used the fire, and covered the dead persons from his group by sand and stones in grooves, and its dated between 37 to 100 thousands years.

In 1868 in Dordogne Valley the Cro-Magnaon Man was discovered in France, and its dated to 35 thousands years. This is the Modern Man, which we belong to him as Mankind (Homo Sapines). He was characterized by strong building , and height mostly than 6 feets. The oldest remains of this type of Homo Sapiens was discovered in Swanscombe near Kent, England, during the second interglacial period. But, the real spread of this type of Homo Sapiens around all the world, occurred after the end of the Ice Age.

So, it was obvious that the legend which talk about the people of Atlantis continent and lived from 10,000 to 15,000 B.C migrated after the continent had slipped and moved from its position and the life on its surface became impossible to where the south pole is to day. Where as the slippery of the continent, where the legend people of Atlantis lived was not more than 450 meters in five thousands years. It's very scornfully to say this amount of slippery made the life impossible on it. To change the climatic condition on the surface of the earth the slippery must be thousands of kilometers and through tens million of years.

Sixth : The hydro corrosion on the statue of the Sphinx

The people who had doubt about the ancient Egyptian civilization and its pharaonic roots say that: the scientists of our modern era have noticed what the ancient take no notice. The statue revealed hydro corrosion, not air corrosion. The explanatory of this due to, that statue was built in an early (advance period) from the history of Egypt and definitely in the pluvial age which was a companion to late ice-age 11,000 thousand years B.C the reason some scientists throughout that of the corrosion my resulted from high flood, and the (makes) sign of the corrosion on the neck of the statue means that if this high flood happened. Its height would reach to 60 feet and that would be enough to drown the Nile valley wholly completely and reaching to the base of the pyramids which rests on a hill. Accordingly they concluded that the corrosion certainly due to the sustainable rains. The scientists noticed that the temple of the valley was constructed in two stages, the first one included the interior part. It was built from great blocks of stones, the second included two facades, or two covers granite covered the exterior and interior facade for the main project. Some granite covers collapsed by the time revealed that the basic stones under these lowers exposed to the natural phenomenon before covering it so the scientists decided that the temple of the valley and the sphinx were built several thousand of years before Chephren to whom the building of the Sphinx attributed, and also sculpturing its face specially on its (lion body) of the statue now, if we put a successive tape for the climate condition of Egypt, we will stop before the following points:

From 13000 - 9500 B.C (rains and floods)

From 9500 - 7000 B.C (dryness)

From 7000 - 2350 B.C (rains again)

2350 B.C up to date (dryness)

From the famous book of the Egyptian Geologist Rushdi Said of the title (The River Nile: Geology, Hydrology, and Utilization ) in 1993 : we can estimate the following :

The Giza pyramids and sphinx were built during the golden age of the Nile Flooding where the income was 300 Billion m3 per year , where the dryness start at the end of the fifth dynasty till today , where the income of the Nile flooding is about 85 Billion m3 per year, where the drawings of the Hungry peoples for the first time in Egypt History were registered in the corridor of king Wanuis pyramid in Sakara (at the end of the fifth dynasty 2356-2323 B .C.) In the same Time the drawing of the animals in Savanna area , in the two western and eastern deserts of Egypt were disappeared into the pyramids at the end of the fifth dynasty , where there is a drawing from Betah-Hotob Tomb (the fifth dynasty) for catching of the lion from the Savanna area.

Most Egyptologists agreed that statue of the Sphinx rests on a high base that considered an original quarry for building the pyramids.

The Sphinx was sculptured from the huge stone block (mass) that was left from the natural rock of the hill, and covered with lime and smooth stone, its height reaches 22 meters, its length 57 meters. If we took it for granted that the corrosion on the statue of sphinx is hydro corrosion but not air (this is also a matter of suspicion) but why did the people who doubted attributed this corrosion to the pluvial age that lies between period from13000-9500 B.C. and didn't they attribute it to the pluvial age which lies from 7000-2350 B.C although the end of the second age (2350 B.C) is after the age building of the pyramids and sphinx according to the Egyptology (2600 B.C).

What I said now can be an answer to the saying for the people who doubt about finding (existing) hydro wearing on some stores of the temple neighboring the pyramid of Chephren and the valley temple neighboring to the Sphinx.

Also, there was an opinion that the wearing (corrosion) on the neck of the statue might be wearing on the (mother stone) from which the statue was sculptured, the corrosion took place on this stone before sculpturing the statue either in the first pluvial age or the second as we have above mentioned, but the Egyptian sculptor didn't perform a process of mending it, for fear that this process may weaken the neck of the statue and cause the head of the statue fall.

Seventh: The similarity between the pyramids of Egypt and the pyramids of Mexico.

The people who had doubt about the pharaonic roots of the ancient Egyptian civilization-say that the ancient people of the Atlantis continent who lived from 15000 to 10000 B.C. when they left Atlantis because it had slipped towards the south pole continent , had emigrated from Atlantis to Egypt and Mexico and built the pyramids in 11.000 B.C in both countries…. But this ancient people disappeared as a result of ice drifting in the last ice-age.

I tell them

It's firmly known in more than one reference, from this references:

(The Cities of Ancient Mexico, Reconstructing a Lost World) for the author Jermy A. Sabloff and published in 1980 in London, Tomas and Headson, and the other reference titled (Ancient Astronomers) for the author Anthony F. Aveni and published in 1993 in the U.S.A publishing House of Smith-Sonian books, in Washington.

The third reference titled.

"Sky Watchers, Shamans, and Kings: Astronomy and the Archaeology of Power" his author Dr. Edwin Krupp, the Director of the Grephs Observatory, in Los Angeles and published in the U.S.A in 1996.

That the civilization of Maya has begun one thousand years ago B.C. and it has flourished for only one thousand years started from the third century B.C to the eighth century A.D…

It was different from the ancient Egyptian civilization which has begun 7000 thousand years ago. And its everlasting symbols as civilization:

• Nobet facing Keft city in Qena governorate.

• Angati (now its near Samnoud city, in Frances Gharbia Governorate), Hour (Dmanhor now Al Behaira Governorate) As their ancient edifices , the pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx - were constructed twenty six centuries B.C.

If the civilization in Egypt and Mexico are from one source - as the legend of the people of Atlantis continent says, then the beginning of the two civilizations would belong to the same period of time…. But there was more than thousand years difference between the two civilizations. Maya and then Aztec civilizations in Mexico are later than the ancient Egyptian civilization and also most and magnificent pyramids in Mexico were built after Christ (A.D.)….. and tits the same to the ancient civilization of Peru (Ankas civilization)…. There was an essential difference between the two civilizations concerning the astronomy calendar for each …. Where as the pharaohnic calendar is solar calendar as the Nile flood connected to the uprising of Sirius at the east south for few minutes before the sun rising (the helical rising or Sirius) ... The Calendar of Mexico and Peru was lunar calendar at first rate.

In a very late period it became lunar-solar calendar a long time often the Christ birth.

The ancient Egyptian civilization was called the civilization of wheat. Ancient civilization of China is rice civilization but the ancient civilization of Mexico and Peru was called the civilization of maize ….. if these civilizations belonged to the same origin since 11000 years ago as the legend of Atlantis claimed, in this case the ancient Egyptian would learn how to grow maize, also Maya and Aztec would learn how to growth the wheat, but it hasn't taken place….. and the history didn't record it. The ancient Egyptians have never known how to grow maize. There was also a difference concerning the religious belief whereas the Nile was sacred to the Pharaohs and related to the legend of Isis and Osoris….. the Gods of Maya and Aztec were three, the God of rain, and the others were the God of the sun and the God of war. Accordingly, It was a civilization depends on rains to cultivate, if there was any similarity between the civilization of Egypt and the civilization that was later than it in Mexico and Peru so these civilizations must get out from the womb of the ancient Egyptian civilization …. This matter is possible as the Mediterranean sea, and the Red Sea considered Egyptian seas until one thousand years B.C….. the voyages of the Egyptian fleet to Bont countries in the east of Africa at the era of the Queen Hatshbsut, the eighteenth dynasty (1490-1468 B.C) was a real evidence on that matter. Then the trial of the Scandnavian adventurers in the sixties of the 20th century in which he could cross the Atlantic ocean in a small boat that was similar to the fishing boat that was sailing on the surface of the Nile on the days of the Pharaohs…… in addition the solar boats… as the boat displayed in a museum in the south of the great pyramid in Giza and its twin is still buried near to him. These boats consider the biggest boat that were found before 2000 B.C, these boats had the ability to sail trans sea’s and oceans.

This Scandnavian adventurer tried to prove that the Pharaohs who crossed the Atlantic Ocean are the origin of the civilization and the pyramids of Mexico and Peru.

Eighth: The face of the Sphinx turns exactly towards the east.

As we have above mentioned that the face of the Sphinx turns exactly towards the east…. And now with the mockeries who suspected in the ancient Egyptian civilization they say nowadays the sun rises at true east at the equinox exactly on the back ground of Pisces zodiac as it was done before starting from 160 B.C and lasts to the year 2000 A.D) .

This age has begun round the period the Christ birth It's not obvious if the slogan of the early Christianity that represented the fish was taken accidentally, as it's about to end, the sun will rise on a new background, he presented on the next zodiac and represented in aquarius zodiac (2001 A.D-4160 A.D) along 2160 years.

If we returned back to the year 2600 B.C in the period of building the sphinx as the Egyptology says so we were at the age of the Taurus (4480 B.C - 2320 B.C) It's noticed that the civilizations of that era consecrated. The calf, as example we see the Minia civilization in Crete island and the tombs belonged the calves that were discovered in Egypt.

The people who suspected say: if the Sphinx was an astronomical indicator and periodically well determined to say that his face turns exactly to the real direction of the east, there must be a position on Giza hill which at most take the astronomical design, should contain at least a slogan to represent the Taurus it was constructed at the age of Taurus. Despite the feature of the Sphinx is (lion like). On the other hand, if we considered that the Sphinx was constructed at the age of Taurus we would notice that the zodiac that rises at dawn at the east before the statue is n't leo zodiac, because this zodiac will at 28o north east. The east direction parallel to the statue (which lock forward to the true east exactly) if we went back to the age of leo (we notice by the computerized and astronomical calculations) and definitely in 10500 B.C, the leo zodiac when it rises at the east appears in front of the Sphinx statue, exactly as if the statue designer wanted to leave a key for the future so that the people who come late may find an evidence by which they could recognize.

The astronomical age which the Sphinx was established, starting from this strong point….. John West - the leader of the suspcious think that the statue of the sphinx at first had no human face but a face of lion as the rest of his body, and its better to say that amending the face took place at the age of Chephren the pharaoh and the basic section of Chephren pyramid in its turn was built in the period of building the Sphinx statue.

I say to the people who are suspecting… and answer on their mockeries… if they had least amount of knowledge about the history of Astronomy in general and specially the history of zodiac circle with its recent figure, because the ancient Egyptian definitely divided the circle of zodiacs into 36 parts each part has its own guard from the souls to care of them. And the ancient Egypt begin it with Sirius thus a new group of astronomical groups appear every days. The Egyptian watched it on its uprising in the east horizon and before the sunrise. The Egyptian observations, and the control of its appearance, and determine them during the night enable him to put schedules "time table" to show the times of appearing these groups and determine it…. and validity degree of using these time tables, and calculating what are left from the night's hours. When this star or other passes at the reach of vision. To him, the beginning of the year related to the sun rise with Sirius (19th of August) and was the date of Nile flood.

In this way the ancient Egyptians participated in building the foundation of Astronomy science. By using their observatories , which spread all over Egypt in the south and north. The centers of Ain Shams and Tiba considered the oldest and the most important observatories.

As a result of their great efforts which they offered in this field, they realized much knowledge about these Groups, and recognizing the year and its divisions, dividing the day into hours.

Thus the ancient Egyptians consider really from the ancient people which contributed in putting the first indices of the real science of astronomy.

The Babylonians "Mesopotomia" in 600 B.C are the first people who knew the circle of the zodiacs with its recent figure, and it's divided into 12 zodiacs - each zodiac meets 30o and covers a month of the year, the Greek and the whole world learnt it from them. We didn't find any sign or painting for the cycle of Zodiac with its recent figure as 12 zodiac (Aries, Tourius, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagitourius, Capricorn, Aqarius, Pisces), but these which were found in Dandra temple that belonged to Patolemy age and was transported to Louvre museum, in Paris. But, who used the circle of zodiacs with its recent division for 12 zodiacs since eleven thousand years ago B.C. As the people who suspected claimed….. at … to set up the statue of the Sphinx at the age of uprising from leo zodiac at the equinox (21 March and 21 September) every year. Not only, they are mockeries, but also ignorance.

Ninth: The linear development and the human civilization .

The linear development or the gradual development of the human civilization that it advanced in a gradual way from the primitive life of covers to the late, intelligent and civilized period, this is the mastering theory up to date and for all our the whole world. But John West the leader of the suspicious people criticize this theory relying on that man 5000 years ago lived in caves, and his civilization characterized with agriculture and hunting. If the pyramids were built 2500 - 3000 B.C, that means: It was built after the Neolithic age directly or at the age of copper definitely but there was an exciting question…. How could the community that lived in 2500 B.C, at the dawn of the civilization and related specially to Neolithic age to build these edifices with these wonderful and magnificent specifications although the volume of the stone for that some used stone was not less than 200 tonns, due to mathematical incapability building of pyramids involved the recognition of the conditions of astronomy, mathematics and geometry that was beyond of the agriculture community reach. John West always speak from the point that his grandfather lived in caves 5000 years ago, and this is the truth… but, did he know that some American Archaeologists from his country, assumed in their own studies that the first agricultural community lived on the earth 18000 years ago, in a region, in the west of Esena in South of Egypt more than 13000 years before building the pyramids. The Egyptologists say that Agriculture spread in Egypt 8000 years ago in the whole of Egypt. It's certain that the astronomical observation’s was not only a habit followed by the ancient Egyptians for thousand of years but it was also a necessitate - where as the Sirius related to the Nile floods - regarding to the great importance of the Nile and its flood to the growing and Agricultural community the ancient observed the heavens and followed the movement of its celestial bodies. For thousand of years before building the pyramids. It's possible that the ancient Egyptians have transported this knowledge to other peoples around them. In 1940 there were two French persons Griol and Deterilen who discovered that the primitive tribe of Dogon, in the eastern center of Africa (Kenya / Etheopia / Sudan) owned wonderful astronomical information such as knowing that Sirius has only one companion star that rotate around it once every 50 years and the comparison star can't be seen with the naked eye even in our age.

The astronomers discovered the companion star in the ninteenth century only, it has been classified since a short time as it is a white dwarf, and named it as Sirius B. Where Sirius A is the brightest star in the night sky, its mass is twice the mass of the sun, and the temperature of its atmosphere is 9000oK. But, Sirius B is less in the brightness, and the temperature of its photosphere is more higher than that of Sirius A, but its mass is equal to the mass of our sun, and the average density of the sun, for that its volume more less than our sun (white dwarf).

The two French scientists were astonished, when they know that this astronomical observations was a method used in the tribe for thousand of years and there were dancing celebration were given every 50 years, that represent the rotation period of the companion star (Sirius B)around Sirius A.

There was an explanation for the German scientist Lotrbrown from Hamburg observatory that the information about the companion star of Sirius was provided to the tribe of Dogoon in an easy way, he thinks when the state of the Pharaohs in ancient Egypt in its glory there was still a huge block over run between Sirius and its companion star this exchange case the historical docuements assume this made the sirius group seemed to be as a bright red star.

In page 93 from “The Back of the Ancient Astronomers” for Antony Aveni and published in the U.S. there was a picture of bone dated at 6500 B.C that was found near a lake on the border between Zaire and Uganda in Africa, this bone was called Ishango bone and it was used as a lunar calendar.

Kim Malville and Alfred Wendorf published in “Nature” April 1997, about the megalithics that were discovered in Nabta region in the south of the western desert of Egypt are the oldest stones posts that were discovered up to date, and are used probably as a temple and calendar at the same time.

The researchers mentioned in a report published that: these megalithics were discovered in a position of Nabta and its date returns to 6000 or 6500 years. So these stone posts become 1000 years older than the megalithic in Welet Shire in England (stone heng) which carried before the title as the oldest stone posts. Kim Malville the Professor of astronomy in Colorado University in the U.S.A said in a statement:

These are (Nabta Megalithics) the oldest megalithics notarized to the calendar in the world, the height of these megalithics are 3 metres high and arranged side by side in the east west direction.

Malville who specialized in the ancient science of astronomy said: These megalithics are arranged vertically in a circle represent the sun at the time of Summer Solistic (21 June)…. In several civilizatsions in the equatorial region the Zenth considers an important event in the milenium, in the same site there are several megalithic stand alone during the summer and fall seasons, the Nile water partially covered the position site, the ancient Egyptians may use it in the religious celebrations to celebrate the beginning of the rain season. Malville added saying : Arranging these stones reveal to symbolic engineering that create between death, water and sun in the site of Nabta there a circle of megalithics and a number of flat stones that shaped like the stones used in cofins and five rows of the vertical megalithics.

There was a stone that looked like a cow and the archaeologists found remains of live stock in the site. The shepherds in the stone age that proceed to the site used the live stock in their religious ceremonies as the tribes of Massai in Africa found manual products that included Ostrich eggs on which some paintings were sculptured.

The site of Nabta was discovered several years ago, A team headed by professor Fred Wonderful from the Southern Maodest University in USA.

In private communication with Kim Malville in February 2001, he sent to me his new paper about Nabta megalithic alignments, where he quoted that:

These megalithic alignments may not have been designed as sighting devices to establish calendrical time, but rather they may have commemorated a perceived connection between heaven and earth, which was especially vital at the time of summer solstice and the monsoon rains.

Construction of the ceremonial center at Nabta may have been motived, in part, by the diminishing availability water at Nabta and a consequent attention to rainmaking rituals. While standing water appears to have been present in the play a following monsoon rains in the middle neolithic, there is no evidence of open water in the late Neolithic. Cultural memories of past wetter conditions at Nabta may have motived astronomical ceremonies to induce rain. The sky provided a number of phenomena associated with the monsoon rains: the sun reached the zenith, megaliths cost their smallest shadow, the calendar circle marked summer solstice sunrise, and the megaliths marked the rising of bright stars in the eastern sky.

Our evidence of attention to the prominent stars, Sirius, Dubhe, and those of the belt of Orion, coupled with the recurrent symbolism of cattle in the earth and the sky, suggests cultural connections across both space and time in southern Egypt. The astronomical traditions of Nabta may have been part of the inheritance of the nomadic cultures that was passed to populations of the Nile valley.

During the period between 22 to 28 February 1998 a debate was held in Cairo it was about the priority of the desert studies. Workshop between the Egyptian and American sides, Professor Archaeologist Fikry Hassan from the Institute of Antiquities, London University, England wrote booklet about the workshop studies-in page (33) he mentioned that the antiquities of Nabta returned to 7000 years B.C. – 9000 B.C. years age.

Following the generally accepted archaeological beliefs concerning pre-dynastic times, Cyril Aldred informs us in his book “The Egyptians” that in late Paleolithic times the retreating ice cap affected the climate of North Africa, causing it to become progressively drier. The Nile, formerly a vast inland lake, had shrunk to assume it present contours, which necessitated the scattered inhabitants of the region to congregate on the verges of the great river in their search for water. The early pre-dynastic period, calculated from around 5000 B.C. and verified from archaeological finds in the Faiyum depression, and Mosta Gedda in the north, and Dier Tasa in the South , encompassed the Neolithic and chalcalithic periods. These early predynastic times are allocated to the period from 4000 BC to 3600 BC, the main sites being those at El-Badari, Merimba, El-Amra, Nagada, El-Ballas, Hu, Abydos, and Mohasna. The middle and late predynastic period is reckoned to be from 3600 B.C. to 3200 B.C., after which we enter the realms of recorded history. What we do know, however, is that during the Amration period between 4000 and 3600 BC, named after the archeological site at El-Amra, near Abydos in Southern Egypt, there was an influx of a race of broad-headed (brachycephalic) people, while the indigenous population of Hamites belonged to the long-headed (dolechocephalic) type. In fact, all the evidence points to the fact that this spread of foreign influence in the fourth million BC, like that of the second, came from the north.

Did John West, after what was mention, still think that the ancient Egyptians lived in caves as his grand fathers did 5000 years ago.

Tenth: The great pyramid as geodesic pointer.

The new explorers noticed that the great pyramid (Cheops) considers a geodesic pointer, geodesy as it's known the science which concern to determine the sites and ground center, the shape of the earth, its volume by the different measurements in a complete accuracy. The great pyramid stands exactly at point on the surface of the earth that at the distance of one third between equator and the North pole, its meridian axis (North - South) parallel to earth axis (North - South) with deviation not more than three out of sixty of degree (3 arc minutes), consequently its location is more accurate than the building constructed on Greenwich longitude (0) / London its value of inclination a nine out of sixty degree ( 9 arc minutes) .

If we draw the longitude from the north to the south at the great pyramid, we will find that it intersects Nile Delta into two equal parts, and if we draw two diagonal lines extended from the vertex of the pyramid and pass by its two base angles the north- west and north east this process form a triangle cover the region of the whole Nile Delta.

The eastern diagonal pass on the longtudinal 32o 28- at the east (the region of Balosa - at the east of Port Said) these are the official east borders of the Nile delta after unifying the two regions of Egypt the upper and down regions at the beginning of dynasty age. The diagonal at the west pass on the longtudinal 28o 50\ at the east (RAAS AL TEEN region, Alexandria) and these are the official west borders of the Nile delta after the union of two regions (upper and down of Egypt).

The middle diagonal pass on the longtudinal 31o 14\ exactly at the east at the middle route between the two other longtudinal ( 1o 14\) from each other.

The North: (we have to add and mention that the north direction was drawn at the bottom of the map not at the top as we did nowadays) The north borders that lies on the latitudes 31o 6\ to the middle point of River Nile mouth on the Mediterranean sea where the seven branches of the Nile Delta, Where they are from the east to the west (Pylosey - Tanisy - Mandizy – Fatimi-Sbnity-Polypeto - Canopy) at the beginning of dynasty age (but in the modern state two branches disappeared). At the moment there are only two branches, Damietta and Rossetta (Rasheed). The south borders (at the beginning of the dynasty of ancient Egypt age) lies on the latitude 24o 6\ it accurately determine the site of Elphantin Island (Aswan) where setting up an observatory for the sun and stars that played very important role along the ancient history of Egypt. On this spot the most ancient for its (sacredness) and that form a stone hill on the west bank of the rever Nile, the artery of the Egyptian's life, the great pyramid was set up as it were geodesic sight seeing for the cape of petta region, that lies at the point of latitude 30o 6\ to the north and longitude 31o 14\ to the east (where Alkanater Alkhiria now) on the north west side of Cairo. The pyramid itself lies to the east, this site was accurately chosen because it's so high for the earth that it allowed for pure astronomical observations, this site is geologically settled down. That enable for building an edifice that weighed 6 million tonns of stones, 147 metres high on area equal 13 feddans (feddan = 4200 m2) includes its attachments. Now, the meaning of building a great pyramid to be geodesic pointer for the Delta of the Nile, it means that this great establishment was built after this region has got its economic and political importance but not as a region of swamp as it was lonous geologically in pre history period.

The regions of down Egypt (Delta) started its real politics flourish, when most of these regions got together in two small kingdoms during the first or the second quarter of the fifth millenium B.C (the same period of first Nakada civilization - Nepet - Qena Governorate, Upper Egypt). In the east of Delta, there a kingdom was set up its capital was (Angha) near to the recent town of Smnoud its flag take the shape of spear its great God took a human figure, two feathers, and (fly whisk) that represented the mace in the historic ages, and crocked stick to express soveregnity, that means that the traditional symbols of the Egyptian monarchy beat its roots to the pre-history period as the Professor Doctor Abd-El Aziz Saleh “In The Cyclopedia of the History of Egypt Through the Ages” (History of Ancient Egypt) (The series of Egyptians' history) No 100 in 1997. (The General Egyptian Authority of the Book, Cairo, Egypt).

In the west of Delta, the second kingdom was set up it considered the God "Horus" as its great "God" in a figure of hawk. It capital might be established in the site of Damanhour town now-its name means (Hour town) in the ancient language of Egypt.

The political step has completed through the union between the two kingdoms of down of Egypt in one state that took the city of (Sao) as a capital, on its ruins the recent town of (SA Al Hagr) was established near the Nile branch of Rosseta "Rashead" and took the Godess (Neet) as protectress as it was considered war's sponsor, and took the "bee" as a badge for its kingdom as it expressed its sustainable and productive work. Its ruler was crowned in red crown. These appearance have become in its turn-as symbols for the historical Egyptian monarchy that maintained them until its last days. Under the leadership of Auno, the ruler of down Egypt the political and cultural union was achieved at the age that preceded the age of dynasty and established (Auno) as a capital for the whole Egypt "Heliopolis - Now they are Ain Shams and Mattarya" the age of that political and religious union seemed to be the second age of (Nkada) and its civilization was set up in down Egypt they dyed its civilization with its dye and developed it in his presence but the affairs of Heliopolis state (Ain Shams now) were not comfortable, and the disputes that broke out near the capital its is, and also in center of Egypt couldn't be avoided, these disputes weakened its existence, upper Egypt dared to separate and rupture its union.

At the end the kings of upper Egypt inhabited in (Nekhn) a town on its ruins the town of (Al Koum Al Ahmr) north of Edfu was set up and granted its divinity son the God (Haur) the upper Egyptian - and took the hawk as its symbol, too. The rulers of this kingdom were crowned in long and white crown. They took a plant as their symbol it was called (Saut) it might be from reed, rush, bamboo. And belonged to this plant saut they called their people with (Saut) and title (Nieso) where as their own kingdom take the flower of lily or lotus as their badge neighbouring to the capital (Nkhen). There was religious suburb was called (nkhab) it was built on its ruins, it kept its name now it's the town of (Alkap) and worshiped a Godess and took female of eagle as a symbol to it the rulers considered it as their sponsor and protectress, they put its symbol on their foreheads against the godess of the North and its symbol. From this upper Egyptian kingdom one of its most and last important propagandiat for its real bed and historical the union get out , they are the king (Al Akrab) and (Narmar) their capital might be transported from (Nkhen) the farthest region of upper Egypt to the town of (Sany) in the center of upper Egypt it's now near (Girga).

The king (Al Akrab) paved by his strong works to the way for his son to realize the union between the north and south. Narmer could realize the real union between the Delta and upper Egypt and founded the first dynasty 3222 B.C. and established the town of (Ang Tah), that meant the town of the white wall, or the white fence and was known later with the name of (Manf) the capital of Egypt.

After this historical detailed presentation for the age of pre-dynasty, through which we aimed at determining the period in which the town of (Auno) was built, it might be at the end of the fifth millenium before Christ or at the beginning of the fourth millenium before Christ. We will go back to Robert Bauval in his book (the Orion Mystery) which wrote it with Adrian Gilbert and published in London:

In the second edition in 1995 - he wrote at the top cover (unlocking the secrets of the pyramids) and wrote at the bottom "the revolutionary discovery that rewrites history". It was nonsense mockeries from non-specialist who suspected the Pharaonic roots of the ancient Egyptian Civilization. He attributed building the pyramids to a plan putted in the eleventh millenium before the Christ but later we will have a situation with him in page 226 from his book, he put the figure No 22 and comment on this figure, geodesic system connects the great pyramid Heliopolis and Letopolis (as there was another sacred city called Letopolis, was its near to the pyramid of Abu Rawash). Where there was a tomb for the Pharaoh (Ged Def Raa) who ruled Egypt for 8 years, he was the son of Cheops and brother of the king Chephren, the turn of Letopolis at the west of the Nile was mentioned in the main texts of the pyramids with Heliopolis, the sacred town to the east of the Nile. The Geodesic system which Bauval mentioned in his book, about a triangle his vertexes are the great pyramid, the temple of the sacred bird the heron in Heliopolis. At the middle there was a post, over the post there was the celestial sacred stand (BenBen Stone) and the town of Heliopolis 24 km north east and the distance between the great pyramid and Letopolis 16 km north, where as the distance between Heliopolis and Letoplis is 18 km, if the pyramid was geodesic pointer for a sacred region extends from Heliopolis to Letopolis and put Menf, (Memphis) in the consideration. How was the great Pyramid built before the existence of the three towns? Or where were they? Whom putted the plan of building Giza Pyramids.

The existence of the three towns? Bauval thinks that the ancient Egyptian civilization is as executing agreed engineering plan through along run periods relied on religous and ideological background, geometric and surveying and very accurate knowledge for the astronomy conditions, and each pharaoh executed the part related to this age - from the religous aspect Bauval thinks that the Egyptians of the fourth dynasty thought that the milky way is the real Nile, and the ground Nile is just reflaction for it and the heaven itself was divided into two parts such as dividing the ancient Egypt into upper and down regions.

Where as Osoris king on a celestial region exactly look like (similar to the region of his king dom on the earth before his death, according to Bouval put in his belief that all the pyramids of the ancient state is the fall of Orion group on the earth on the banks of the Nile as it is in the heavens each according to his place and sparkle (brightness) Cheops who connected to the bright at star in the Orion group is the owner of greatest pyramid, Chephren succeeded him ….. and so on Bauval attributed the execution of this engineering plan that based on religous and ideological background to a period called "the first period" the Pharaoh called him in their constituents (zibtibi). Bouval attributed it to the year 10500 B.C. for astronomical and guessing reasons we mentioned it at the begining of the article. Bauval thinks that the Sphinx was built in the first period (10500 B.C.) and this statue is outside the rank of Giza pyramids. It is impossible, unfortunately, a lot of common readers in Europe, America, and the world believed these mockeries, and his book was sold in a great amounts in England 1994 in his first edition, after the British TV has transmitted directly more than a meeting with him and he talked about his book and his theory which rewrite the history!!!

Eleventh: The tombs of the worker, the pyramids builders.

During the last decade of the 20th century the workers' village of the pyramids builder was discovered neighbouring to the pyramids itself, the tombs of workers were discovered, the studies on the skeletons that obtained out of the tombs were performed and it indicated the following:

(1)The skeletons belonged to persons the average of their length 170 cm tall, and they are the same length belong to us at the moment.

(2) There is compressibility the vertebral column for most of the workers as a result of carrying and pulling the stones for building the pyramids.

(3) There is a sign for the disease of Bilharzia in the bones.

(4) The paintings and the colorful drawings inside the workers' village proved that the workers has the same features like ours and had the suntan complexion like the most of us even the way of behaving the moustache that is followed in the Delta and upper Egypt…. The drawings indicated one of the workers pulling a small pyramid, it seemed to be the stone that was put at the top of the pyramid when they finished building it, the pharaoh himself comes to put this small pyramid at the top of the pyramid among a great, folk, and religions celebration. The great ancient Egyptian engineers designed the pyramids such as (Imhoteb) - they had knowledge of engineering, medicine and astronomy - Imhoteb was granted some titles, one of this title the chief of the observer that’s to say the chief of astronomers, the observer of the stars and planets in the sky in late periods the quality of divinity was added to his titles 600 B.C from his favorite title (the god of wisdom).

The ancient farmers built the pyramids without scorn or slavery. For a national project agreed to religions belief in that time…. As we said the pharaoh comes and put the small pyramid over the top the pyramid when they finished the building in a great happiness and a great token celebration.

It's an evidence mean that the pyramid was built with love, not by mockery as wrote by some writers of Jews and Zionists.

Dr. Zahi Hawas the President of the General Authority of Antiquities of Egypt, and the General Secretary of Supreme Council of Antiquities of Egypt said in an article (Saturday reportage) that was published in Alahram on 7 June 1997: on the ancient Egyptian tombs we have found all the evidence that prove the way the ancient Egyptian followed to transport the stones by which the great pyramid was built, as one of the most immense Egyptian pyramid there are 105 pyramids in Egypt….. if you come to the region of the pyramid and wanted to know how was the pyramid built? You must known , and search first for the quarry from which the stones were cut. Secondary… on the (Al Ranb) the ascending route on which the stones were transported the ascending route was immense and was built from (a stone-rabel), they were small stones covered with a layer of argil on which the sleds ascend, if this route disappeared it must have a mark under the ground and this what Zahi discovered - Zahi was still speaking we have found the stones of Cheops pyramid were taken from a place 84 metres to the south of the pyramid, the ancient Egyptians have established two ascending routes near to each other a million stones were transported by sleds.

Twelfth: The late ice age.

According to the geological studies, the ancient climate of the earth, and Anthropology, the late ice age lies between 60000-10000 B.C (its maximum was at 19000 B.C.) there a great contrast about the saying the legendary people of ATLANTIS continent had a flourishing civilization attributed to the period from 15000 B.C to 10000 B.C.

This people died out as a result of Ice-drifting which reached to the pyramids region, and was perished the ancient Egyptians succeeded this legendary people and inherited these lofty edifice. The late ice age extended from 60000 B.C to 10000 B.C that means the legendary people of Atlantis continent died out at the end of the late ice age.

Where as there is no ice drifting but sustainable shrink of the ice.

Does the ice have a destructive effect on some kind of human beings without affecting on the others. So why did the ancient Egyptians survived?.

All the studies of anthropology about the man who lived in the pre-history proved that the Egyptians were existent in this region of the world since more than 10000 B.C and all of them were from populations in the south of Mediterranean sea, primary cultural centers were found at the beginning of the modern ice-age from (8000 to 5000 B.C) in Egypt and attributed to the civilization of (Marmadet Beni Salama near the cape of Nile Delta), and the civilization of Fayum at the entrance of middle Egypt, the civilization of Dertasa in Assuit inside upper Egypt. These cultural centers weren't the whole cultural mob in this age but these were the centers where the modern archaeological researches were performed more than any other Egyptian centers that are contemporary to them. After mentioning these 12 evidences that our ancient civilization was pure and of Egyptian essentiality we say to the people who suspected the ancient Egyptian and its pharaonic roots that;

(1) The vacuity of the edifices of the hill of Giza pyramids from any sign belongs the fourth dynasty that built them, or its vacuity from any pharoanic mummies belong to the fourth dynasty that sticks to its name is not an evidence that theories about the ancient Egyptian civilization are not right.

It's known that the mummies were stolen and this interprets the reason if not finding these mummies, there was a strong tendency that these paintings covered the wall of the pyramids outside - then the factors of corrosion and the time erroded them, the internal paintings might n't be followed by the fourth dynasty but later it was followed as the paintings found. In the pyramid of Wanuis in Saqarra, that was constructed in the age of the fifth dynasty.

(2) Existing the big boats in the Egyptian desert, as the people who suspect said had no evidence of existing these boats but the remains of the army the Persian King Campyses under the great sea of sand in the west desert but without any marine boats.

On the 21st December 1996 an expedition from five members from the Center of Desert Archaeology Research (Ce.R.D.O) in Verse – Italy by the leading of Professor Alfredo Castiglioni, the Director of Ce. R. D. O., and membership of a Geologist from the Egyptian Geological Museum in Cairo (Mr. Aly Barkat) were carrying out a geological survey in the Bahrin Oasis area in the western desert of Egypt, with the objective of investigating by metal detector the presence of iron meteorites. While working in the vicinity of a sandstone scarp, the researchers observed a natural shelter measured approximately 35m in length, 1.80m in height and was about 3m deep. With an east-west trend, it turned to the north in the very last stretch and then ended.

On the eastern and, a half-interred pot was found, only its rim being visible out of the sand, whereas at the western and some possibly human bones occurred.

• Mr. Aly Barakat found on the soil surface the hilt of a dagger, lying at a distance of about 1.70 m from the pot.

Not far from the dagger (at 1.20m approximately), the dagger blade was lying on the sand. Further search in the shelter did not reveal any more evidence.

• At the western and, just before the shelter bent to the north (at 1.50m from the bone fragments), two arrow tips occurred on the surface.

• A search outside the shelter led to the discovery of some stone heaps, possible tombs. The metal detector did not indicate the presence of metal. Not being in possession of the necessary authorization, the presumed tombs were not excavated.

• At a distance of about 400 m from the shelter, on the southern side of the scarp, a small come sheltered a remarkable heap of human, and possibly animal, bones. Among the bones a bracelet was found, probably made in silver.

. At the foot of the scarp occurred two more arrow tips and an earring possibly in silver, with four tiny spheres in the same metal.

• The objects have been recorded and photographed, a list was compiled and the material was given to Mr. Aly Barakat. An analysis of the findings , based on the photographs, suggests they most likely belong the Achaemenid period.

In 2 October 2000 Professor Alfredo Castiglioni wrote to me, to arrange together a new expedition to the Bahrin Oasis in the western desert of Egypt. This expedition gives the opportunity to carry out a more through search, and this can be done by following the presumed itinerary of the Cambyses’ army up to the shelter where the Archaemenid material was found in 1996.

Based on a historical search, Ce.R.D.O, has been able to hypothesize a possible route, and we would like to follow it in the course of this new mission. From El-Khargha Oasis (the island of the blissful) described in book III of Herodotus History, the last Oasis where Cambyses’ army was seen. The expedition should follow a western direction to the Gilf El-Kebir, up to the point where the track coming from the south is crossed. Here, a north direction would be followed along the great sand sea inter dune corridor, up to Siwa, which was the final destination of Cambyses’ army.

When Campyses conquered Egypt in the sixth century B.C

It must be noted that, in ancient maps, Siwa had been erroneously located about 150 km more to the south than its real position. Possibly the army, reaching the locality indicated in the maps, did not find Siwa and ran into a sandstorm. The people therefore, looking for refuge, dispersed in various directions. A group of soldiers may have tried to find protection from the mortal southern wind (as Herodotus stated) in the shelter, where the first mission found the first Achaomenid evidence in 1996. A further task of mission would be the search of pottery depots of the “Abu Ballas” type. Historical sources report that the Persian armies moved in the desert by preparing, well in advance, real artificial wells by burying hundreds of water pots. Herodotus reports: “… the inhabitants … fill with water the clay pots and take them to areas… that are waterless” (History, book II, 6, II). The new mission will be in the autumn of 2003, where we arrange for it, with the Italian Colleagues.

Greek and Romans were much affected by the pharaonic religion and adopted a lot of their traditions that attributed to the pharaonic religion that the doctrine of worshiping Isis spread all over the Roman empire specially in the country of AL GHAL (France) "non" that happened also to the worship of (Osoris) and (Anopis). Alexander the great because of his great love and admiration for the Egyptian civilization considered himself as descendent and a son for the Egyptian Gods as the kings of Egypt and their religions, where he chose Alexandria not Macedonia to inherit a theatre as a tomb to be buried this assure the great love of their king for Egypt. And the cultural role that Alexandria played and for its inherited creeds in the days of the pharaohs.

(3) The basic conception that thinkers of the west put for the origin (root) of the western civilization considers that the fathers of this civilization are the ancient Greek philosophers they are racists they didn't like to confess that their civilization come from the womb of "Tiba" the African suntan (of brown or black eyes), but they claimed that it came from the womb of Athens, the white European city (of blue or grey eyes), that the matter that was refuted by the Greek philosophers by themselves.

For example the bad and hard words of O.Neugebauer in his books of title: A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy-Part Two- Book III Egypt- which published by springer – Verlong (1975), where he said in the first page of the book:

Egypt has no place in a work on the history of mathematical astronomy. Nevertheless I devate a sparate “Book” on this subject in order to draw the reader’s attention to its insignificance which can not be too strongly emphasized in comparison with the Babylanion and the Greek contribution to the development of scientific Astronomy. Egypt provides us with the exceptional case of a highly sophisticated civilization, which flourished for many centuries without making a single contribution to the development of the exact sciences. I am sure, this opinion of O. Neugebaure is not fair and honest.

Also, O. Neugebaure is approximately canceled the role of our Great Arabian – Islamic civilization during the period (800-1400A.D.), in developing of the mathematical astronomy and put instead of it something named Hebrew civilization?!!!

Most Greek and Roman writers thought firmly that Pythagoras, Plato and Homer learnt their philosophy from the ancient Egyptian Dydoras mentioned in the first century after the birth of Christ that the most cultural people of the Greek looked forward to visiting Egypt to study the laws, and the high level ethics although Egypt was closed before the foreigners. The history told to us about the ancient who visited Egypt such as Orapyo, Homer, Pythagoras and Solon. Herodot (485-425 B.C) quoted the approach of the Egyptians of astronomical calculation is better than the Greek approach. Strabo the historian (64 B.C-25 A.D) quoted that the ancient Egyptians revealled to the Greek the secretes of he whole year which they ignored as many other matters. Christominus (30 A.D) wrote that: the Egyptian diviner scorned from the Greek because they ignored a lot of things.

Today, there are a project between Minufiyia University and the Supreme Council of Antiquities in Cairo , to surve the ancient Egyptian monuments from Giza to Abu – Simbel (Temples, Pyramids, and Tombs) for three years (2003-2005) to find the relation between the solar and steller positions in the sky and the orientation of these monuments, also to study the astronomy at the ancient Egyptian from papyrus. The project aim is to know the knowledge of the ancient Egyptian by the mathematical positional astronomy and the astronomical calculation. Also, to know the knowledge of the Astro-religion at the pharaohs, beside their religion for the sun. The team work is national and consists from:

1- Professor Mosalam Shaltout, the principal investigator (Astronomer).

2- Dr. Zahi Hawas (Egyptologist). The General Secretary of the Supreme Council of Antiquities in Cairo.

3- Dr. Magdi Fekry (Egyptologist) Faculty of Tourism, Minufiya University, El-Sadat City .

The project have the priority as national project for the defence about the ancient Egyptian Civilization. It will be contained many of the young astronomers and young Egyptologists in late time , where we need more efforts for Egypt and the purity of her history.

At the end we would like to say in the seventies of 20th century the Americans belonged to studied the interior put of the Sphinx, they divided it into two phases, some scientists belonged to the corporation of Edgarecase participated in performing this studies. Edgarecase was an American fortuneteller claimed that he transmigrated with the Pharaonic God "RAA", he forecasted that there is a secret door in the great pyramid will be discovered before the end of the 20th century, they used several developed technics as passing metal rails in the rocks, and an electric current to measure under ground frequencies, using magnetic measure aero and thermal photography by using infrared, although the studies didn't lead to firm results. The team who worked in this process thought there are two tunnels under the back paws of the statue. The evidence that we drove to use it in defending ancient Egyptian civilization are scientific facts and draw question marks before the scientific researches, financed by a corporation that had prior attitude about the pyramids and its history as a corporation Edgarcase foundation, its American dead founder the fortuneteller see that they are older than its recent history and connected with ancient Israeli forecasts. We called for not dealing with this racial corporation even it has taken the scientific approach, because it has missed the scientific honesty, and expose our history for plundering and robbing and quaked the ancient Egyptian civilization away from its Pharaonic roots.

We also called for co-operating with any national or international agency to render the basic sciences, and modern technology to reveal any mystery surround our ancient edifices, as the scientific facts will assure, not to negate the reality that the ancient Egyptian civilization, is pure Egyptian in its origin 100% since the dawn of the history. These corporations must be trust worthy scientifically on the international level.

Professor Doctor, Abd El Aziz Saleh Said that the vocabularies of ancient Egypt still alive in the contemporary Egyptian society, connecting its population to their by gone the names of their village are on every one lips as well as their towns, their agricultural months, also their daily affairs must be on every one lips our ancient Egypt is still a live in our contemporary society specially in our folk and rural (quarters) with its spirit, habits, endurance, faith, ethic and its character, Professor Abd Elaziz Saleh added in “The Cyclopedia of Egypt History Through the Ages (History of Ancient Egypt) so thinkers of Manf turned with their idea to the creature and creator in their doctrine to denudation, abstraction, and keep it away from materialization and in corrosion in Ain Shams doctrine, they were about to penetrate some of what the heaven books themselves assured when they attributed to creating to the heart, tongue means the will and the order, they approached to some extent to the holy revelation if Almighty God "Allah" decreed a matter he say be, then it becomes not only did they consider their God as creator but also legislator and fair they spoil the highness of their thinking when they admitted the presence of many Gods beside him, and Justified their behavior that the God created them from himself and advocate them, and to be worshipped and take care of their temples as he consider them until arising the dawn of monotheism in the eighteenth dynasty, with the birth of the body (Imnhoteb the fourth) at the beginning of 1380 B.C this King, was Philosopher, who called himself the name of (Aknatoun), the historian of religion interpreted it as the apostle of the God he worshiped his God in his prayers saying :

- What a lot of your works, they are unknown to the people.

Oh! You are the only god, the other are powerless beside you.

- Created the earth as you wish, None beside you.

-Created all the people, and all creatures in the universe.

- All what walks on his feet, crawl, or fly with his wing.

Your are undaunted, you are in the eternity of life.

“Praise the lord, the only God, he has no partner, no boy in his royalty”. Did Akhanaton get out from the qualities of Allah the holy names in hymns ?

No..he means the aloneness and unity of the God, which is the main principal of our religion ISLAM. Do these ancient Egyptians deserve the love and the honor of belonging to them and defend their great ancient civilization?

The answer, yes


1- J. E. West ; Serpent in the sky, Julian Press, New York (1987).

2- R. A. Schwaller de Lubicz ; Sacred Science, Inner Traditions International, Rochester, Vermont, (1961).

3- R. Bauval; The Orion Mystery, William Heineman Ltd, London, (1994).

4- M. Hope ; Atlantis: Myth or Reality? , Penguin, Arkana, London, (1991).

5- W. Mattews; Geology Made Simple, Heineman, London, UK. Translated to Arabic by Academy of Scientific Research and Technology Cairo – Egypt (2002).

6- R. Said, The River Nile: Geology, Hydrology, and Utilization, (1993).

7- J. A. Sublaff; The cities of Ancient Mexico, Reconstructing a lost world, Tomas and Headson, London, (1980).

8- A. F. Aveni; Ancient Astronomers, Publishing House of Smithsonian Books, Washington, (1993).

9- E. Krupp; Sky Watchers, Shamans, and Kings : Astronomy and the Archaeology of Power, Grephs Observatory, Los Angles, (1993).

10- A. Saleh; History of Ancient Egypt-The series of Egyptian’s History, No. 100, Published by the General Authority of The Book, Cairo, Egypt, (1997). In Arabic.

The author in Some Words

Dr . Mosalam SHALTOUT

Professor of Solar – Terrestrial Physics

Cairo , Egypt

Professor Mosalam SHALTOUT was born in a village named Sanagra near to the city of Abu- Hamad in the El- Sherkia region (the eastern edge of Nile Delta) of Egypt on May 9,1946 to Ahmed Mosalam SHLTOUT and Fatma Hassan ESSA. He has been married to Mervat Sadek El- Saud , a physician, since April 5, 1974 . He has two sons , Mohamed , a Computer Engineer , and Ahmed – Mazen , an Electric Power Engineer . Dr Shaltout earned a B. SC. in physics and astronomy and M.SC in Solar physics and a Ph.D in solar Flares in 1967 .1973 and 1977 , respectively , all from the Faculty of Science at Cairo University.

While still pursuing his advanced education , Dr Shaltout worked as a Research Assistant at the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG) in the Helwan area of Cairo, Egypt between 1968, 1977 He then worked as a Researcher at NRIAG from 1978 to 1981 Following this from 1981 to 1985 Dr Shaltout served as an Associate Professor of Solar- Terrestrial physics in the Faculty of Science of King Abd-EL- Aziz University in Jeddah , Saudi Arabia , He has been a full Professor at NRIAG since May 1987 . Moreover , he was vice-chairman of the Solar and Space Research Department from 1989 to 1995, and Chairman of the same department from 1995 to 1998.

In addition to his service in Academia , Dr Shaltout was a consultant for the New and Renewable Energy Authority in Cairo from 1990 to 1991 He is the author of Egyptian Solar Radiation Atlas , the first book of its kind , and Typical Solar Radiation Year of Egypt . Other books he has penned are “the Sun and Nile Flooding” and “Energy Management and the Future Horizons”. He has written many scientific and technical articels for international professional journals , including approximately 85 articles in the field of Solar Energy and the Environment ,and about 65 papers in the filed of Space Science and Technology. Dr. Shaltout is also the national contact for the World Renewable Energy Network (UK), and served as such for the International Solar Energy Society (Germany) from 1988 to 1998. He is a member of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) and the International Association of Solar Energy Education (IASEE); he served on the Technical Committee of the Supreme Council of Scientific Research, Cairo, between 1994and1996 Additionally, Professor Shaltout has been Egypt‘s representative at more than 65 international conference and world congresses during the period 1985 to2002. He has received several honors, including the Country Encouragement Prize in Physics in 1986 and the country Medal of Excellence, First Class, in 1995 amongst other.

Notably, Dr, Shaltout is one of the most famous leading intellectuals in the Arab world ,and is well know to the general public through television , radio and newspaper. Also ,he is an independent writer on the subjects of national strategy and project in the fields of scientific research , technology development , energy and the environment .Recently ,he has suggested a few world wide project for the 21st Century in articles written for international journals ,they including solar hydrogen production from Nasser Lake in Upper Egypt , the Abu Simel Radio telescope in Upper Egypt as a part from VLBI in the world, and testing the Martian exploration instrument in the Western Desert of Egypt. On a slightly different note ,his avocational are interests reading ,history ,philosophy ,the arts ,classical music and museums.

He work now, as Chairman for Space Research Center, Desert. Environment Research Institute, Minufiyia University, El-Sadat City, Egypt.

The pronaos leads into a hypostyle hall, with four square pillars painted with images of the pharaoh before the various gods. The walls too are decorated with liturgical scenes, including the transportation of the sacred barge. The ceiling has been painted by a traditional scenes like the cartridge and the eagle of the extended wings.

In the northern and western walls, we find entrances lead to a group of chambers were used as stores for the priests because the scenes of those chambers wall are liturgic.

The middle entrance in the western wall leads to a smaller hall of four squared pillars of liturgic scenes. This hall has three doors in the northern and southern ones are of unpainted chambers, while the western one is of the sacrarium (The Holy of the Holies) which is the extension of the temple axis. On the western wall of the sacrarium, we find four seated statues cut into the rock. From the right to the left, these statues are for “Ra Harmakhis”, King Ramses II, “Amon Ra” and “Ptah”. In the middle of the sacrarium, we find the a table of oblations on which the oblations were offered on when the sunlight enters after daw



Prof. Dr. Mosalam Shaltout

Chairman of Space Research Center, Desert Environment Research Institute,

Minufiya University, El- Sadat City, Egypt.

Tel. : + 2 ( 048 ) 603208 ; +2 ( 048 )602178
Fax : +2 ( 048 ) 600404

Mobile : +2 (010) 515-6443

E-mail :

http :

Abu Simbel Temple is the biggest one cut in the rock in all over the world. It can be considered as a sign in the old architecture and geometry. It is difficult to say how the large building like it is found in the far areas of the country. There are two reasons for this: either Abu Simbel hill has a special holiness or the Pharaoh might wanted to dazzle his neighbors in an area near the second fall by showing them his force and wealth.

There are many evidences state that the origin of the idea of building Abu Simbel temple was of “King Seti I”. Also, it was found that a large internal part was cut before “King Ramses II” rising on the throne in 1301 B.C. But nobody can say how much “King Seti I” was responsible of the temple finishing and specially its front. As we know, “King Ramses II” was not referring the favor to any one before him.

The war prisoners built Abu Simbel temple. They finished their work before 1259 B.C. This temple has been dedicated for the worship of “Ra Harmakhis” like many other ones in Nubia. This god has been combined with the sun. It is represented as a human body with a hawk head wearing the solar disc. So, the purpose of foundation of this temple in this place is the sun worship.

The most important points of resemblance of this temple are the four colossal seated statues of “King Ramses II” cut in the hill rocks. Each two of those statues are seated on each side of the temple entrance. They are more than 65 ft representing the “King Ramses II” wearing the double Egyptian crown (Pschent). Also, we can find some relatively small statues of “Queen Nefertari” (the most beautiful woman of all the beautiful ones) and some royal children. All of these four groups stand on a high base of a cartridge of “King Ramses II” and a group of Asian and Negroes captives painted on. The thrones, which are boxes shaped, have been painted by the traditional groups that represent the unification of the two lands (Delta and Upper Egypt). The front, which represents the background of the four colossal statues, has been painted on the shape of a frame has a row of 22 seated baboon monkeys have their arms up for sun worship. It is known that baboon monkeys usually shout at sunrise. Also, on the entrance, we find a statue of the god of the sun “Ra Harmakhis” has a hawk head.

The entrance of the temple leads to big hall (pronaos) has two rows each has four pillars. A big standing statue of the “King Ramses II”, wearing the double crown (Pschent) and holding the scepter and the flail, reclines on each one of these pillars. The pillars and the walls of the hall which is 30 ft height have been covered by religious scenes, texts and the military glory of “King Ramses II”. The most interesting and famous one is of the northern wall, where we can follow the various phases of the battle of “Kadesh”, including the pharaoh’s military campaign against the Hittites in the 5th year of his reign. The long epic poem, written by the court poet “Pentaur”, is engraved in hieroglyphics both here and on the walls of the other temples, such as “Luxor” and “Karnak”.

The phenomenon that made this temple different from the other ancient Egyptian ones is the entrance of the sunlight twice a year in the early morning to the sacrarium to reach the four statues illuminating this dark deep place in the rock that is 65 meters far from the principal entrance of the temple.

In 1874, the explorer Miss “Emilda Edwards” and her team observed this phenomenon and recorded it in her book published in 1899 (Thousand Mile on the River Nile) as follows:

“At sunrise, the sacrarium statues become of an incredible effect and are covered by a beautiful corona of fear and veneration. If any one did not observe the falling of the sunlight on the statues, he would doubt about its big effect accurately calculated according to the astronomy and arithmatic of ancient Egyptians. This is because the direction of the temple was accurately calculated for a certain angle to receive these radiation on the four statues faces”.

In 6:25 A.M. in 21st of February or 5:55 A.M. in 21st of October in every year, the sunlight enters smoothly on the King Ramses’s face hugging and kissing him. A flux of light irradiates the King’s face in his chamber located inside the feared temple heart. A feeling of fear and a small pulse vibrate your heart as if the light catch you perturb your depth by a magic obscure force. What a magic?! and what an obscurity perturb your existence as you are living a miracle moments.

Then, the sunlight is spread soon to be a bundle of light illuminating the four statues faces inside the sacrarium.

It is known that as a result of the motion of the earth around the sun in a semi-circular orbit, there is an apparent motion of the sun through what is called the celestial zodiac circle that is a circle declines by 23.5° on what is called the celestial equator. So, the position of the sunrise varies daily on the horizon in an interval lies between –23.5° and 23.5° from the real east which the sun rises from only on 21st of March and 23rd of September of the year (they are called the equinoxes or the beginning of the spring and Autumn seasons respectively). In the Spring and the Autumn seasons, the sun rises from a position declines from the east by some degrees north. This declination reaches its maximum on 21st of June (the beginning of the Summer season) and will be 23.5° north. On the other hand, in the Autumn and Winter seasons, the sun rises from a position declines from the east by some degrees south. This declination reaches its maximum on 21st of December (the beginning of the Winter season) and will be 23.5° south. Accordingly, if we have a long path directed to the east or declined to it by an angle 27.5° north or south as a maximum and closed from the west, the sunlight will illuminate the closed wall twice a year.

So, it is normal to find the sunlight enters Abu Simbel temple and hit the four statues in the sacrarium perpendicularly twice a year because its axis declines on the real east by an angle of 10.5° south.

But the miracle appears here if the two days of illumination are selected and determined before the sculpture process. This is because it needs a complete knowledge of the astronomy basis and many calculations to determine the declination of the axis of the temple from the real east. Also, the miracle appears in the perfect straight axis along a distance of 65 meters cut in the rock.

Although there is no historical references assure this, many people say that the two days, 21st February and 21st October are the birth and the enthronement days of “King Ramses II”. Also, many references assured that the origin of the idea of building Abu Simbel temple was of “King Seti I” (King Ramses II’s father). Moreover, it was found that a big internal part of this temple has been cut before “King Ramses II” enthronement.

We suggest here that those two days are representing both the beginning of the Agriculture Season (21st of October), after the water of River Nile been uncovered, and the beginning of the Harvest Season (21st of February) for some eaten green crops like onion and green bean. So, they were very important days in the ancient Egyptian man when the land was planted once a year in the system of irrigation by basins.

We are hoping from the tourism announcement to be accurate and scientific, especially because the history and antiques tourist is a well-educated one not that fool who some people think. So, if the announcement was not built on a true scientific and historical basis and facts, it might lead to an opposite results because, in this case, it will be a kind of lie.

Now, we will go to the geological report about the temple prepared by a French consultative office according to a request from the Egyptian government and the UNISCO published in Paris in October 1960. This report states that there is a strong probability that the great temple axis was not advisedly selected by the ancient Egyptian architectures but they were pushed to select it as a result of the geological structure inside the rocks. The report also mentions that this is not a unique case, but the same thing occurred to the temple of “Hathour” (the ancient Egyptian goddess of the love and beauty). This means that the ancient Egyptians were also pushed to select the temple axis.

Sun was the first god for the ancient Egyptians and the Solar disc “Ra” was their greatest god. They founded the temples for it and joined its name to theirs. Also, they made the city of “Heliopolis” or “Ain Shams” as a center for its worship. So, the main purpose of cutting of “Abu Simbel” temple in a rock mountain in a such far place is the worship of the sun at the time of its rise. Also, we can say that the ancient Egyptians were interested with the following of the sun motion through the other stars and observing it accurately and regularly.

There are many evidences show their observations accuracy and their leading the other civilizations in the celestial bodies observing and studying a deep study based on regular accurate observations and a great knowledge of mathematical basis:

First: They used an accurate astronomical calendar since the old era. This calendar was based on the sidereal year as a basic unit in the time measurement. Also, they measured its length (365.25 days) by the phenomenon of Burning Sunrise of the star Sirius which was occurring at the time of the floods of the River Nile. Their paints evident that they knew this before pyramids building. They invented the civil year and divided it into 12 months each has 30 days, and finally they used to add 5 or 6 additional days (called “Al- Nassea” in Egypt) to complete the year. On the other hand, the other contemporaneous (Greeks, Romans and Assyrians) were hitting at random in many trails to join the beginning of the lunar months with the civil ones.

Second: They built the pyramids as their kings tombs because they believed with the revival after death. It can be noticed that the Giza pyramids were built at latitude 30° N on the edge of the rock plane not in its center. The sides of their bases coincide with the original directions with an error does not exceed 5? of arc measured by the recent instruments. Their sides are equal with an error of 20 cm and their internal inclined paths coincide with the Meridian. So, many astronomers deduced that the internal paths were used as star observation instruments. Also, they deduced that the Sirius light was perpendicular on the southern face of the biggest pyramids at 2300 B.C.. This accuracy in the direction determination, as measured by its difficulty nowadays by using the recent instruments, is an evidence that the ancient Egyptian priests who were surprising on the pyramids building, were using the astronomical observations in this operation.

Also, there are evidences which prove the ancient Egyptians care of studying the celestial objects like the pictures of the star clusters by which the ceiling of “Dandara” temple is decorated, and which are found now in the “Lover Museum” in Paris. Also, there are many paints on its wall show the day and the night hours, moon faces and the path of the sun through the stars.

We designed a computer program for “Abu Simbel” temple and fed it by an astronomical, geographical and topographical data for calculating the altitude and azimuth of the sun for every day of the year. Also, we calculated the azimuth of the sun for the latitudes of ancient Egypt from 20° N to 35° N.

The calculations showed that the azimuth of the sun for the two days 21st of February and 21st of October gets narrower as we go to the south. For example, it is 9.2´ for “Memphis”, 7.5´ for “Thebes” and 6.3´ for “Abu Simbel”. This leads us to say that the selection of building such a temple in this place may be referred to astronomical and architectural reasons besides the holiness of the place. (The azimuth of the sun is the angle of deflection of the sun about the geographical north measured towards the east direction). This angle has to be absolutely coincident with the direction of the temple axis on both 21st of February and 21st of October to enable the solar ray falls on the sacrarium at sunrise. We know that the deflection angle of the temple axis about the geographical north was 100° 33? 33? measured towards the east direction before the temple rescue and its transition to the top of the plateau during the 1960s of this century to save it from sinking in the High Dam Lake. Also, we have to say that the temple transition and reconstructing process was done accurately which is considered to be a wonderful geometrical and architectural work did not occurred before.

Also, the calculations showed the sun has to rise on Abu Simble temple on 21st of February in 6:22 A. M. if there is no topographical obstacle in the eastern horizon. But in the reality, the phenomenon occurs at 6:26 A. M. at which the azimuth of the sun coincides with the deflection angle of the temple axis. After these four additional minutes, the sun rises 34? of arc above the horizon so that the hills lying in the eastern bank of the River Nile do not obstruct its rays from reaching the temple and then the sacrarium. So, there is a relation between the height of the eastern bank hills and the deflection angle of the temple.

These calculations assure that the direction of the temple axis was accurately selected and previously determined before the cutting operation to enable the phenomenon to occurs on both 21st of February and 21st of October a year. Also, we can assure that the calculations were based on an accurate astronomical, geographical, topological and mathematical basis since about 3300 years.

As we mentioned, there is no sure evidence indicates that the two days of 21st of February and 21st of October are the days of birth and enthronement of “King Ramses II” respectively. They are similar in the azimuth of the sun at the rise time. Similarly, there are another similar days like 20th of February and 22nd of October, and 22nd of February and 20th of October. The differences in azimuth for these four days do not exceed 20? of arc. Those days, besides the two days of 21st of February and 21st of October, may have an importance in the ancient Egyptian history.


Also, we have to say that the temple axis direction is slightly different from that in the time of its building since 3300 years. This direction is probably changed by about 20? of arc due to astronomical reasons (like variation of the Polaris star position in a very small circle around the earth real north pole every 26000 years and the ancient Egyptian astronomers observations were based on the observations of this star). But this is not the most important thing because this effect is so small. The most effective reason is the crust motion in Egypt as a result of “Plate Tectonic Theory”. This effect has been proved by the recent geophysical studies that used the earth gravitational force around the High Dam Lake and the recent space studies using lasers in artificial satellite observations used in the geodesy studies. Also, there is an old earthquake activity in this area due to the “Kalabsha” natural crack. In 1210 B.C., an earthquake occurred and leaded to the destruction of one statue of the four colossal ones of the temple facade during the reign of “King Seti II”. This king repaired the first of the two statues on the north of the portal which has damage signs began to appear.

Also, As we mentioned, pyramids bases sides coincide with the original directions with an error does not exceed 5? of arc measured by the modern instruments. There are many recent studies indicate that this slight difference is not due to a defect in the building or a mistake by the ancient architectures but due to the crust motion in the lower Egypt. This motion was in a larger scale in the Upper Egypt.