EGYPTIANISM, OF THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION
LIES AND REALITY
All the rights are reserved for the author Mosalam shaltout,
where this book was published in Arabic in the monthly journal
"El-Allem" (Science) on three parts at July, Augusts,
September, 1998, Cairo, Egypt.
The most extraordinary tendency related to the building of
the Pyramids and in which era they were built? It's the tendency
that suggested “The people of Atlantis continent, which
some peoples' legends talked about, and that lived according
to these legends between the year 10,000-15,000 B.C. after
the continent had slipped down from its position and the life
became impossible, this people migrated reinforced with progressive
technology, this people inhabited two areas, the first part
which known today as Mexico and neighboring area. The other
part which is known today as Egypt, in both sites they setup
a new and great civilization, which their trace are still
existed up to date”.The tendency also suggested the
Pyramids of Giza were built from 10,000 to 15,000 B.C !!!!
This tendency suggested the people of ancient Atlantis continent
disappeared from the history. This people had its own monuments
here and there such as Giza Pyramids and Sphinx. The reason
of its disappearance of owing to ice drifting to the earth
ten thousand years ago (late ice-age). The tendency also suggested
that the ancient Egyptians inherited some technological knowledge
from the advanced culture of Atlantis people which flourished
before the late ice-age. According to this theory the Pyramids
of Giza were not built by Cheops and his dynasty, and Chephren
didn't build the sphinx and both of them were much older.
At the beginning of nineties, and the end of 20th century
, the theory has become the most dangerous theory which quaked
the ancient Egyptian civilization from its Pharaonic roots
and attributed it to other peoples, why ?!!!
Today there is a great scientific tendency (astronomical
and geological) urge to inquire about the roots of the ancient
Egyptian Culture and extracting an explanation for the miracle
of the Pyramids and other wonders for the Egyptian culture
in very far bygone and exactly in 11,ooo B.C.
The most remarkable person who is responsible for that tendency
is the American researcher (John Anthony West) where he quoted
in his book (Serpent in the sky) Egyptian civilization was
not a development, it was a legacy. Who concentrated in his
researches on Sphinx, the valley temple, and the Osirion in
Abydos. Robert Schacht Professor of Geology in Boston University
has confirmed the estimation of John West about the age of
the sphinx suggests that Chephren merely restored the monument,
possibly replacing the original leonine head with a likeness
of his own face . The American Society of Geology has also
adapted the opinions of John West officially in its conference
in 1992, in the land of cow boy civilization and Blue Jeans
Culture, where USA want to spread it in the world by force
(starting by Iraq (Mesopotomia) the land of the dawn of Mankind
Civilization, and Baghdad the city of the dawn of Islamic
John West criticized the prevailing theory which suggests
that the development of human culture is (linear) that's to
say it has developed gradually from the primitive life of
cave to the intelligent and civilized period. There was an
evidence that indicated the sphinx is several thousand years
older than what it was thought by the archaeologists. And
it was thousand years precedents to the age of dynasty that
means. There was an advanced civilization was found in a very
old and precedent period from the history and in the same
way that inherited legends referred to the French mathematician
R.A. Schwaller de Lubicz has explored the region of Luxor
and found some evidence indicated that the culture there was
more advanced in sciences and culture than what we have already
thought. He also indicated, that Egypt was struck by floods
and heavy rains in 11,000 B.C., and the sphinx exposed to
hydro wearing, that's to say: Egypt has enjoyed a great civilization
before the sphinx, he assured that Egypt conceal the monument
of its civilization under its dust.
The astronomer L. Fillipoff, claims to have discovered new
facts in old fifth-to sixth-dynasty pyramid texts, which connect
the god Thoth or Tehuti with the Zodiacal sign of cancer.
Fillipoff assumes Thoth to have been a culture bearer from
a land in the west, who made his appearance when the vernal
equinox was in cancer on or around 7256 BC. When those arrived
on Egyptian soil he was greatly moved by the people’s
lack of education and law, so he and his companions set about
teaching them science, religion, art and music. This suggests
that the world was into the 1256th year (or thereabouts) of
the age of cancer at or around the time of Thoth’s visit,
the intimation being that Thoth and, no doubt, those people
who came from “a land in the west” who were later
defied, were missionaries and colonists from Atlantis. The
Denderah Zodiac is a circular map of the heavens showing the
sings of the zodiac as they were seen and understood of the
Egyptians in ancient times, with particular emphases on the
signs of cancer and Leo. The temple of Denderah was erected
by the Ptolemies in the first century BC upon the site of
an earlier temple. Its hieroglyphics declare it to have been
constructed “according to the plan laid down in the
time of the companions of Horus”, that is to say well
before the beginnings of dynastic Egypt.
John West added that the sphinx considers an evidence on
existing an ancient civilization that established these lofty
edifices, above all John West thought the statue of the sphinx
at the beginning was not having a human face, but a lion's
one, as the rest of its body, and amending the face took place
at utmost at in true the age of the pharaoh Chephren, the
great part of the Pyramid of Chephren was built in its turn,
in the time of building the sphinx.
In 1993, an Engineer was newly joined Egyptology called Robert
Bauval, he was civil engineer, British nationality, Belgium
rooted, had a book titled "The ORION Mystery" he
mentioned in this book in 10500 B.C., two rare astronomical
events took place in the sky of ancient Egypt, one of them
took place accidentally, the second only took place once every
ten thousands of years, the two "incidents" are:
(1) The milky way that extends from the
north to the south of the heaven dome has taken accidently
a shape corresponding to the North South water course of the
Nile valley to extent began from the hill of Giza as if it
were a complete copy, and a true image of the milky way, in
fact the Milky way seemed to be celestial Nile.
(2) To the South of the milky Way, the
three stars of ORION belt reached the nearest point to the
earth in its rotation which takes place once every 26000 years.
When the orion's belt star Al-Nitak was the brightest, and
nearest one in the group it stands in the middle of the meridian
(North-South circle) before crossing this circle.
These incidents attracted the attention of the ancient,
as it was the sport which created the religious creed of stars,
and a system of architecture that rarely takes place today,
so Robert Bauval attributes the building of Giza Pyramids
and Sphinx to 10500 B.C All these scientists hope that they
will enable someday to find an evidence for an older civilization
related to the period 15000 to 10000 B.C. buried under the
ground or may be under the Mediterranean which was terra firma
(land) during the late ice-age.
Murry Hope in her book (Atlantis : Myth or Reality?) mentioned
that: In commenting on the art technique used by the ancient
Egyptians for producing inlaid eyes on their statuary, John
West brings to our attention that the very early examples
found to date are blue or grey-eyed rather than brown-eyed.
Strangely enough, I also noticed that the traditional Eyes
of Ra which were later allocated to Horus, Bast and other
deities were also depicted with a blue pupil. Considering
the fact that the indigenous population of those parts was
almost exclusively brown-eyed, the original art work which
served as a model for later copies must have obviously represented
a people whose eyes were predominantly blue or gray. The same
applies to blood groups , of which I have made an extensive
study in relation to the subject matter of Atlantis!!!
Also, she added, since Egyptologists appear to be so sure
that there is no evidence of an advanced technology in pre-dynastic
Egypt, from where or from whom did the ancient Egyptians cull
their knowledge of mathematics and astronomy? It has been
postulated that, prior to the rise of historically acknowledged
cultures of ancient Egypt, a great civilization existed, the
science and technology of which exceeded even our present-day
achievements. However, when a freak of nature conspired to
obliterate its homeland, all that remained were folk memories
which slowly degenerated into legendary myths and superstitions!!
Also, she said: according to Herodotus, who received his
material from the Egyptian priests, their written history
dated back 11.340 years before his area, or nearly 14.000
year prior to the present!!! The philosopher Proclus (AD 412-482)
mentions the travels of a Greek named Grantor, who visited
Sais and was shown a certain column in the temple of Neith,
complete with hieroglyphics, which recorded not only the history
of predynastic Egypt, but also that of the country from which
those people hailed who brought their culture to the shores
of Egypt in those distant times-Atlantis!!!
The Egyptian priests effected a translation for Crantor,
and their account was in full agreement with that quoted by
Plato in the Timaeus, with which they were familiar. Although
Egyptologists claim that they know of no such pillar, or the
existence of any texts relating to the Atlantis episode, this
is hardly a conclusive argument; Atlantis could have been
mentioned many times in the innumerable documents that were
lost when the vast libraries were burned and pillaged by the
fanatical zeolots of the new faiths that were ultimately to
take hold in Europe and the middle East. Dare we hope that
some priceless scroll, which will supply us with the necessary
details, may yet be found in the archaic ruins of some ancient
mud or capsule theory so beloved of modern metaphysicists
and fringe scientists, the answer must be , Yes!!!
But now as we are Egyptians and grand sons of the pharaohs,
what is our reply?
The ancient Egyptians only built these and constructed these
edifices and any analysis or study for thousands of paintings
and drawings which belonged to the ages of pharaohs show how
they were built? All doubts related to this matter are motivated
by political considerations and suspicious attitudes and derived
from the racial motives, and they are racial trials to steal
the efforts of the Egyptian people as it place to the literature
these books contained and related to the civilizations roots
were stolen and attributed to other peoples, as it includes
a frame of systematic process to steal the history.
Before mentioning the evidence that refute these false accusation
about the ancient Egyptian civilization, and the ancient Egyptians
we re-going to deal several evidence to what these racialists
fancy to prove and assure their theory.
(1) The evidence relied on that there is no sign
to point out that the fourth dynasty has built them as the
official Egyptology said. There is no mummies for any pharaoh
belongs to this fourth dynasty to which building the Pyramids
stuck to its home.
(2)The great engineering achievement in
ancient Egypt in a period next to neolethic age directly (8000
to 5000 B.C).
(3) The existence of great boats in the
(4) Natural an hydro corrosion factors
that appeared on the sphinx although it was buried under the
sand for long time which extended for the last five thousand
years and that indicated it was sculptured when the wet climate
prevailed in Egypt, and that characterized the Egyptian territories
about ten thousand years ago.
(5) The sign of hydro wearing on some stones
of the temple neighboring the pyramid of Chephren.
(6) The great similarity between the Egyptian,
Mexican and Peruvian civilizations, in addition to the similarity
related to the Pyramids and the shape of building between
Egypt and the other two countries in middle and South America,
the similarity exceeded to the symbols and the meaning behind
these edifices, the first symbol, three mexican pyramids of
TUTT hwa Kan region are main as the same in Giza. Two pyramids
from the three in both sites are parallel to imaginary straight
line pass in the middle. In both sites the third is divergent
to the left outside.
The Pyramids in both countries relied on ancient main texts
and the paintings belong to places where men can be transformed
into Gods. From the human nature to divine nature.
(7) the ancient Egyptian "religion"
believed in the creed of astro-resurrection as the ancient
Mexican did. In the tomb of (double convention) that belongs
a king of Tecal city that belonged to Maya, that ruled in
the eighth century there were paintings represented the Journey
of resurrection by a boat. These paintings are similar to
the paintings that decorate the pharaohs tombs in the kings
valley as temple of Tohetmus the third that belonged the eighteenth
dynasty in Egypt. The excavators found great ground paintings
one of these paintings was known as NAZCA spider which indicated
specially (Orion tower) , and the straight line which form
consecutive layers indicate the change in divergence of the
stars of Orion tower belt.
Now we offer an evidence that refute these false accusations
about the ancient Egyptian civilization and the ancient Egyptians,
as a scientific honesty and the national loyalty for the dust
of Egypt, its history and its great glory.
First: The history of building the pyramids by using radiant
The radiant carbon laboratory in the Southern Methodist University
financed by (U.S National Science Foundation), and (Eidgenossiche
Technische Hochschule) laboratory financed by (Swiss Institute
for Nuclear Research and Swiss National Science Foundation)
to study the history of Giza region where (the Pyramids and
the Sphinx ) are in the eighties of 20th century by using
the radiant carbon.
They have extracted the following results as they were mentioned
in original report which was issued by the American Research
Center in Egypt and published in a conference held in the
Capital of France "Paris" specially for this (purpose).
Only wood and carbonized sample belongs to the great Pyramid
of Cheops and returns to 3809 B.C. It was discovered at the
South West corner, the round 198 in the Pyramid.
Another thirteen samples belongs to nearer rounds (3090-2853)
Wood and carbonized samples from Chephren Pyramid belongs
to the period 3196 to 2733 B.C.
Wood and carbonized sample from Mykrinos pyramid belongs
to the period 3076-2067 B.C.
Two wood and carbonized samples for the sphinx taken from
the same site belongs to the period (2746-2985 B.C).
This means that the tests of the radiant carbon doesn't agree
to the opinions which said the Pyramids of Giza were built
in a period precendent to the history of the fourth dynasty
in the year (2680-2560 B.C.). In the same time it indicated
that it's difficult to mention a definite and final date for
building the Pyramids.
Secondly: Laser measures for air shaft in
the great pyramid.
In 1993 the German engineer called Rodolf Gaten Brink, robots
specialist, was appointed by the German Institute of Antiquities
in Cairo to solve the problem of the increasing humidity inside
the great Pyramid. He could solve the problem by making the
humidity rate inside the pyramid equal to the humidity rate
outside, he put two fans in the air shafts of "Pharaoh
Chamber", but his scientific curiosity drove him to design
a small robot and called him (UBO out-2) it meant road conqueror
in Hieroglyphic to explore the small passage inside the South
air shaft in the Queen chamber and it was thought that it
was only extended to several metres, the archaeologists think
thought that this aperture extends to a few metres. But it
was a surprise the robot continue walking forward, sending
the photo by video to the control center, until it crashed
into a dome then it went through to a distance of 65 metres
before it stands in front of small tile, its length is not
more than 20 cm, its width 20 cm (square tile), two copper
handles were fixed on it, there was a little crack which allowed
light of the searching robot to pass through it, that indicated
that there is a space behind, and consequently a room.
The same exciting experiment repeated in 17 September 2002
by American Robot, by Finance from International Geographic
TV Channel in cooperation with the Supreme Council of Antiquities
in Cairo, Egypt. Where, the Robot went to 65 meter’s
through the south air shaft in the Queen chamber and made
a hole by a small drill in the limestone square tile (20x20
cm), and then sending the photo by video camera to the control
center. The photos show that, after 21cm exactly from the
square tile, there is another one from clay, with many chraks
in it. The expected room did not found. The pharaohs are still
the winners by their simple technology on us with our modern
and progressive technology in the 21th century, where the
secret is still secret. Really, they were Pharaohs, and deserve
our appreciation as outstanding people, and great grandfathers
for us, with the honour.
Now, the meaning of finding two copper handles, one of them
was broken into pieces on the tile that was found at the end
south aperture passage in the Queen's chamber.
The date of building the pyramids belong to copper age which
extends from 5000 to 3500 B.C.
The measure of the laser ray that the German engineer Rodolf
GATENBRINK has proved during his exciting experiments that
building the aperture inside the pyramid returns to 2600 B.C
the estimation may be 150 years more or less this date agrees
to the age of the fourth dynasty (2680-2569) B.C. but, how
do we attribute the building of pyramids to the legendary
people of Atlantis which disappeared according to legend in
the late ice-age that extended from 60,000 to 10,000 B.C.
Third, The similarity aspects between the
king Chephren and the face of the sphinx !
All sources agreed and said the face of the Sphinx was built
at the age of the fourth dynasty according to the order of
Chephren, the Pharaoh who ruled Egypt after the death of his
father, the king Cheops, the Archaeologists turned to the
statues of Chephren pharaoh, to search for the similarity
between the king and the face of the Sphinx, they turned to
the most famous statue which was sculptured from the black
durite and kept in one of the hall in ground floor in Cairo
Egyptian Museum, one of Egyptologist called Mark Lous from
the Oriental Institute in Chicago University performed an
exciting experiment at the beginning of the eighties of 20th
century, he used photographs and drawing by using the computer
for this pharaoh trying to find the similarity between Chephren
and the Sphinx.
During this process the Sphinx photographs were transformed
to relief digital statements, they determined 2.6 milion points
on the surface of the statue and marked the statement to add
or cover the skeleton with skin, this Archaeologist turned
to several photos of the pharaohs and other statues of the
sphinx to help him in this process, but only the photo of
Chephren granted the sphinx lively look (lively impression).
The element that proves the strong engineering relation between
the Sphinx and the pyramids. That they turn towards the east
symmetrically with untouchable difference. The observer on
the hill of Giza at the Summer Solstice (21 June), will observe
the sun rise at 28o north east and also at the Winter Solstice
(21 December) will observe the sun rise at 28o south east.
That means that there is an angle equals 56o between the two
solstices. But the observer will observe equinox in the middle
on looking to the east directly (21 March and 21 September,
every year). This allow to cut the triangle into four sectors
at 14o for each consequently the observer will observe the
points of sunrise centrlized at the middle between every solstice
and equinox. Or at (14o north east and 14o south east) successively.
Accordingly the annual apparent sun orbit was divided into
four sectors each indicates an important astronomical point
which is accurately determined, and is separated by angle
It's observed that the passage leads to the third pyramid
exactly turns to the east such as the Sphinx and the second
pyramid which points to 14o declination towards south east,
the great pyramid passage that turns 14o towards north east.
Fourth: Astro religion at the Pharaohs.
The ancient Egyptian specially consecrated (Orion group)
which were known as SAHO to the pharaohs, and known to the
Arabs as (GABAR, refering to Orion) and Sirius which was known
as (Sothic) to the Pharaohs and Al Shairra to the Arabs. Because
if it rised from the direction of sunrise (the Helical rising
of Sirius) that indicated the Nile will be flood, where it
is the source of life.
Bradley Schaefer from Yale University Published in the Journal
“History of Astronomy” No. 31 at 2000 that: currently,
Egyptologists use dates for the helical rise of Sirius derived
by the “arcus visions” method going back to Ptolemy
through the work of Schoch. The latest works have no improvements
upon the older work.
Astronomy has made great advances, both observationally and
theoretically, since the time of Scoch. In particular , the
old rule-of-tumb based on the arcus visions is now known frequently
to lead to large errors that invalidate many old conclusions.
More importantly, a reliable theoretical model of the physical
and physiological processes has been constructed and verified
with extensive observational tests. Also critical, extinction
coefficients can be established for ancient Egypt with error
bars. With these advances, modern astronomers can calculate
the dates of Sirius’s helical rise to a much greater
accuracy than was possible by the old rules-of-thumb.
Dr. Rolf Krauss from the Pre-History Museum in Berlin-Germany,
offered an analysis (at the Oxford VI conference in La Laguna,
Tenerife, Spain) of the helical rise of Sirius based on the
Illahun papyri in an effort to improve the absolute chronology
in the early second millennium B.C.
There is a collaboration between the author and Dr. Rolf
Krauss to observe the helical rise of Sirius at Aswan in the
Upper Egypt during the summer of 2003.
From the astronomical point of view it is connected to its
appearance with (Orion group) which rises before it. This
group is connected to Osoris the first legendary king in Egypt.
This king was killed and temporarily its mumny revived for
a short time to enable his wife Isis to give birth and be
the inheritor of Egypt, then he ascended to the heavens and
staye there up from that day on, Osoris became the God of
the hereafter, when his wife Isis die in its turn transformed
Sirius lies directly under Orion and it's his constant companion
on uprising and setting, as the wife is acompanion to her
husband that foretell us the Nile flood is coming soon, accompanied
with the life resurrection. The writings known as the main
texts of the Pyramids which were discovered inside the pyramids
belong to the fifth and sixth Dynasties 30 km south from Giza
pyramids point. Specially the pyramid of king Wanes indicate
the relation between the kings and stars. We can get benefit
from these main text that some pyramids have really named
as some stars. For example the red pyramid built in Dahshour
by Snifrau, the father of Cheops name after (Snifrau the radiant),
also the curved pyramid (the hmped) in Dahshur and Abu Rawash
pyramid which were mentioned with the name of Goodif Raa,
and Sahedo star.
Sahou and Sahedo is a region in the sky belongs to the (Orion
group) according to the pharaonic religion. There are also
main texts point frankly to the pharaoh accompanied with phrases
associated him to the stars (you, the great star, the companion
of Saho), Here it is (Osoris) has ascended to Saho.
On the king …. (the heaven became conceived to you
with Saho) they imagined Orion in a shape of human and male
body and similar to Osoris " as it's thought), there
are several paintings for Saho belongs to the modern kingdom
specially in (Sinmout) tomb and on the ceiling of the southern
chamber where it appears in a shape of a man stand on a boat
carrying (key) a symbol of life in a hand and the mace (king's
staff) in the other, over his head there were three big stars
arranged successively the top star inclined little to the
left. No doubt that the three stars Zeta Orion, Epsilon Orions
and Delta Orion represent the stars of Orion’s belt
which take the same order and arrangement as they are in Orion’s
group. It's worth to mention that the order and arrangement
in Orion's group is not changed from the ground visible aspect
since the age of the pyramids (2700-2150) B.C the phrases
in the pharaonic texts which address the pharaoh, as a king
in this picture was great.
The heaven conceived to you side by side with Saho, the light
of down would carry you with Saho and you would ascend regularly
with Saho from the east side of the heaven, you would descend
regularly at the west side of the heaven with Saho" !
the king you're the great star, you companion of Saho, you
cross the heaven with Saho and sail to the hereafter with
Saho, you extend at the east side of the heaven, after you
had renovated and rejuvenated in the definite season and definite
time. The four shafts in the great pyramid lead to the basic
paharaonic religion the south shaft in the king's chamber
turns to Orion's group and definitely to the orbit's star
known as "ZETA Orions" the south Shaft in Queen's
chamber lies under King's chamber turns directly to Sirius
The north shaft in the king's chamber turns directly to
the snake's star (Alphadragons). The north shaft in the Queen's
chamber turn to Coushap star.
The ever lasting shake of the earth is a unique and characterized
matter, the earth cycle around the pole of the ecliptic (precission
of the equinox). Which represent one of two points 90o on
the north, and 90o to the south of the circle that represent
the annual and visible course of the sun in the heavenly dome,
push the points of spring equinox 21 March and turned to the
north to move from zodiac to another in the zodiac circle
1o for 72 years, and 30o for the complete zodiac in 2160 years,
or 4320 to complete 60o, whereas the round movement that the
shaking determine take 26,000 years until it get perfect.
Regarding to the earth shaking, now the four shafts no longer
turn to the four sacred stars that were above mentioned stars
moved away from its position due to the shaking since the
period of building the pyramids up to date. So if we have
used a computerized program to calculate the degree of moving
these stars away from their original position "location"
at the moment of building the pyramids. In this way we can
get the conclusion for the period of building the pyramids,
from this astronomical fact it's 2600 B.C, and this what agree
to the estimated time for building the pyramids according
to the Egyptologists.
The Historian of Architecture Kate Spence in the Faculty
of Oriental Studies, Cambridge University has also proved
that and published it in the magazine “Nature”,
the edition of the half of November 2000.
The theory of Kate Spence depend on the following :
At present , Earth’s rotational axis happens to point
more or less in the direction of the bright star Polaris ,
which , maturally , is called the pole star. The apparent
distance between Polaris and the north celestial pole is currently
about 0.75 (45 arcminutes).
But this misalignment changes over time because Earth’s
axis is not fixed in space . In a period of some 26,000 years
,it traces out a large circle , a motion that astronomers
call “precession”. During the days of the ancient
Egyptians, Polaris way far from the true celestial Pole. Back
then , Thuban , in the Constellation Draco the Dragon , way
closer to the pole , but not close enough to serve as an accurate
compass . But more or less on opposite sides of Thuban , there
are two stars that , according Spence , were used to mark
true north the first one Kochab ( which , apart from Polaris
is the brightest star in the Dipper ) ; the other is Misar
, the middle star in the handle of the Big Dipper .
If You correct precisely for the precession of Earth ,s axis
and for the very small proper motion of the stars across the
sky , you can easily calculate that in 2467 B.C., the imaginary
line connecting Kochab and Misar so in 2467 B . C , it way
not very difficult to find true north using a plumb line ,
you would just wait for the moment when one of the two stars
way exactly above the other . If both stars are eclipsed by
the plumb line , this same line also points exactly toward
the north .
Because, of the precession of the Earth ,s axis, this method
is not fully accurate in the period before and after 2467
B . C . So if you use Kochab and Misar to determine the direction
of true north,
You are left with small deviation , which
are greater for large time difference from 2467 B. C.
Could this be the solution to the alignment riddle ? Spence
is convinced it is, and many Egyptologists agree with her.
The Great pyramids of Cheops exhibits a slight westward deviation
of a few arcminutes. That can be explained if construction
commenced in 2478 B C ( 11 years before Kochab , Misar , and
the north celestial pole were exactly in line ). For pyramids
built still earlier , this westward deviation is larger ,
pyramids that were built later show an increasing deviation
toward the east. From the chronology of Egyptian Pharaohs
, the time intervals between the various pyramids are precisely
known , and working from the year 2478 B. C. for the Great
pyramid , every thing seems to fall into place.
Commenting in the same issue of Nature, Astronomer and Historian
Professor Owen Gingerich of the Harvard – Smith sonian
Center for Astrophysics describes Spence,s theory as an “ingenious
Fifth: The theories of the Geological movement.
There are three theories related to the geological movement
which cause some parts from the earth crust to move from place
to another. The theory of (Continental Drift) says that the
global (the earth) was only one immense continent and broke
into plates, and these plates moved to its recent position.
There is the tectonic theory which managed to explain a
lot of the geological phenomenon which the first theory failed
to explain it (the word tectonic means the science of forming
the earth crust).
The Third Theory (Earthcrust displacement) according to this
theory the earth crust crawled away from its place because
of the earth rotation.
Hankok thought that one of these factors (Continental Drift
- tectonic - Earth crust displacement) has pushed the Continent
of Atlantis to be slowly eroded to south pole region according
to the theory of Charles Habgwood about earth crust. Habgwood
has published it in the last of fifties of 20th Century in
a book containing a map for Lequin Modland in south pole region,
It's known that the region is covered with snow so the elevations
All modern (geodesic) and Geophysics studies which depended
on measurements and observation’s on progressive ground
and space technology have proved that the movement of earth
crust is several millimeter to several centimeters per year
from one place to another in the earth and not more than 9
cm per year at the utmost estimation at any way, as mentioned
in (Geology Made Simple) by William Mattews, Heinemann, London,
That means the Atlantis continent moved only 90 km in million
years, or 180 km in two million years at utmost estimation,
this movement doesn't lead to a great change in the climate
that can cause harm to its inhabitants leaving the region
for the very cold weather towards the south pole continent
according to the legend. Most Geological, biological and climatic
studies assure that the reasons for life got suitable on the
earth since 600 million years ago. There is the atmosphere
with its air that is suitable to breathe hydrosphere which
contain water that potable, the climate got mild and be endurable
and suitable for all the living creatures that started to
move into the water, and on the surface of the earth. Thus,
the ancient period of life has begun and lasted for about
375 million years when different ages succeeded, these ages
were called the ages of the invertebrate, the ages of fish
aquatic creatures, amphibians, Polypod forests, and insects.
Then a new period has begun after it and named the middle
life this period lasted for about 155 million years. It was
famous for its gigantic reptiles which spread on the earth,
and make it a theatre for its invasion. Finally, the periods
of modern life have begun 70 million years ago these periods
were named after the age of mammals and flowering plants,
near of the end of this age man appeared (Homo habilis), that
was 2.5 million years ago according to the traditional scenario
of the biology all the human being, belonged to one species,
this species lived on the east and south of Africa, then its
sons scattered into different parts of the earth. The first
skull for (Homo erectus) was found in the east of Africa and
it's dated to 600 thousand years, which discovered in the
old way Gorge in Tanzania, which oldest than the man of east
Africa (Zinjanthroups Boisei) which discovered in 1959 in
Olduvai Gorge and its dated to 200 thousands years. In 1891
Java Homo erectus was discovered near to Ternile village in
Java Island , and its dated to 400-500 thousand years .
In 1992, the world magazine (Nature) reported that two archaeologists
one of them was Chinese and other was French, the two Archaeologists
preferably decided that the two skulls which were found belonged
to one species and lived in the period that was precedent
to the recent man of today that's to say 350 thousand years
ago, they assured that the two skulls belong to (Homo erectus),
they take after to a great degree the human skull who live
in Asia at the moment.
In Europe the Heidelberg Man (Homo Heidelbergensis) was discovered
near Heidelberg city in the South of Germany, and its dated
to 450 thousands year. in 1856 the Neanderthal man (The midway
between Homo erectus and Homo sapines) was discovered in the
Neanderthal Valley in the North-West of Germany. He was a
cave – man, and good maker for his articles from stones,
and he used the fire, and covered the dead persons from his
group by sand and stones in grooves, and its dated between
37 to 100 thousands years.
In 1868 in Dordogne Valley the Cro-Magnaon Man was discovered
in France, and its dated to 35 thousands years. This is the
Modern Man, which we belong to him as Mankind (Homo Sapines).
He was characterized by strong building , and height mostly
than 6 feets. The oldest remains of this type of Homo Sapiens
was discovered in Swanscombe near Kent, England, during the
second interglacial period. But, the real spread of this type
of Homo Sapiens around all the world, occurred after the end
of the Ice Age.
So, it was obvious that the legend which talk about the people
of Atlantis continent and lived from 10,000 to 15,000 B.C
migrated after the continent had slipped and moved from its
position and the life on its surface became impossible to
where the south pole is to day. Where as the slippery of the
continent, where the legend people of Atlantis lived was not
more than 450 meters in five thousands years. It's very scornfully
to say this amount of slippery made the life impossible on
it. To change the climatic condition on the surface of the
earth the slippery must be thousands of kilometers and through
tens million of years.
Sixth : The hydro corrosion on the statue
of the Sphinx
The people who had doubt about the ancient Egyptian civilization
and its pharaonic roots say that: the scientists of our modern
era have noticed what the ancient take no notice. The statue
revealed hydro corrosion, not air corrosion. The explanatory
of this due to, that statue was built in an early (advance
period) from the history of Egypt and definitely in the pluvial
age which was a companion to late ice-age 11,000 thousand
years B.C the reason some scientists throughout that of the
corrosion my resulted from high flood, and the (makes) sign
of the corrosion on the neck of the statue means that if this
high flood happened. Its height would reach to 60 feet and
that would be enough to drown the Nile valley wholly completely
and reaching to the base of the pyramids which rests on a
hill. Accordingly they concluded that the corrosion certainly
due to the sustainable rains. The scientists noticed that
the temple of the valley was constructed in two stages, the
first one included the interior part. It was built from great
blocks of stones, the second included two facades, or two
covers granite covered the exterior and interior facade for
the main project. Some granite covers collapsed by the time
revealed that the basic stones under these lowers exposed
to the natural phenomenon before covering it so the scientists
decided that the temple of the valley and the sphinx were
built several thousand of years before Chephren to whom the
building of the Sphinx attributed, and also sculpturing its
face specially on its (lion body) of the statue now, if we
put a successive tape for the climate condition of Egypt,
we will stop before the following points:
From 13000 - 9500 B.C (rains and floods)
From 9500 - 7000 B.C (dryness)
From 7000 - 2350 B.C (rains again)
2350 B.C up to date (dryness)
From the famous book of the Egyptian Geologist Rushdi Said
of the title (The River Nile: Geology, Hydrology, and Utilization
) in 1993 : we can estimate the following :
The Giza pyramids and sphinx were built during the golden
age of the Nile Flooding where the income was 300 Billion
m3 per year , where the dryness start at the end of the fifth
dynasty till today , where the income of the Nile flooding
is about 85 Billion m3 per year, where the drawings of the
Hungry peoples for the first time in Egypt History were registered
in the corridor of king Wanuis pyramid in Sakara (at the end
of the fifth dynasty 2356-2323 B .C.) In the same Time the
drawing of the animals in Savanna area , in the two western
and eastern deserts of Egypt were disappeared into the pyramids
at the end of the fifth dynasty , where there is a drawing
from Betah-Hotob Tomb (the fifth dynasty) for catching of
the lion from the Savanna area.
Most Egyptologists agreed that statue of the
Sphinx rests on a high base that considered an original quarry
for building the pyramids.
The Sphinx was sculptured from the huge stone block (mass)
that was left from the natural rock of the hill, and covered
with lime and smooth stone, its height reaches 22 meters,
its length 57 meters. If we took it for granted that the corrosion
on the statue of sphinx is hydro corrosion but not air (this
is also a matter of suspicion) but why did the people who
doubted attributed this corrosion to the pluvial age that
lies between period from13000-9500 B.C. and didn't they attribute
it to the pluvial age which lies from 7000-2350 B.C although
the end of the second age (2350 B.C) is after the age building
of the pyramids and sphinx according to the Egyptology (2600
What I said now can be an answer to the saying for the people
who doubt about finding (existing) hydro wearing on some stores
of the temple neighboring the pyramid of Chephren and the
valley temple neighboring to the Sphinx.
Also, there was an opinion that the wearing (corrosion)
on the neck of the statue might be wearing on the (mother
stone) from which the statue was sculptured, the corrosion
took place on this stone before sculpturing the statue either
in the first pluvial age or the second as we have above mentioned,
but the Egyptian sculptor didn't perform a process of mending
it, for fear that this process may weaken the neck of the
statue and cause the head of the statue fall.
Seventh: The similarity between the pyramids
of Egypt and the pyramids of Mexico.
The people who had doubt about the pharaonic roots of the
ancient Egyptian civilization-say that the ancient people
of the Atlantis continent who lived from 15000 to 10000 B.C.
when they left Atlantis because it had slipped towards the
south pole continent , had emigrated from Atlantis to Egypt
and Mexico and built the pyramids in 11.000 B.C in both countries….
But this ancient people disappeared as a result of ice drifting
in the last ice-age.
I tell them
It's firmly known in more than one reference,
from this references:
(The Cities of Ancient Mexico, Reconstructing a Lost World)
for the author Jermy A. Sabloff and published in 1980 in London,
Tomas and Headson, and the other reference titled (Ancient
Astronomers) for the author Anthony F. Aveni and published
in 1993 in the U.S.A publishing House of Smith-Sonian books,
The third reference titled.
"Sky Watchers, Shamans, and Kings: Astronomy and the
Archaeology of Power" his author Dr. Edwin Krupp, the
Director of the Grephs Observatory, in Los Angeles and published
in the U.S.A in 1996.
That the civilization of Maya has begun one thousand years
ago B.C. and it has flourished for only one thousand years
started from the third century B.C to the eighth century A.D…
It was different from the ancient Egyptian
civilization which has begun 7000 thousand years ago. And
its everlasting symbols as civilization:
• Nobet facing Keft city in Qena governorate.
• Angati (now its near Samnoud city, in Frances Gharbia
Governorate), Hour (Dmanhor now Al Behaira Governorate) As
their ancient edifices , the pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx
- were constructed twenty six centuries B.C.
If the civilization in Egypt and Mexico are from one source
- as the legend of the people of Atlantis continent says,
then the beginning of the two civilizations would belong to
the same period of time…. But there was more than thousand
years difference between the two civilizations. Maya and then
Aztec civilizations in Mexico are later than the ancient Egyptian
civilization and also most and magnificent pyramids in Mexico
were built after Christ (A.D.)….. and tits the same
to the ancient civilization of Peru (Ankas civilization)….
There was an essential difference between the two civilizations
concerning the astronomy calendar for each …. Where
as the pharaohnic calendar is solar calendar as the Nile flood
connected to the uprising of Sirius at the east south for
few minutes before the sun rising (the helical rising or Sirius)
... The Calendar of Mexico and Peru was lunar calendar at
In a very late period it became lunar-solar
calendar a long time often the Christ birth.
The ancient Egyptian civilization was called the civilization
of wheat. Ancient civilization of China is rice civilization
but the ancient civilization of Mexico and Peru was called
the civilization of maize ….. if these civilizations
belonged to the same origin since 11000 years ago as the legend
of Atlantis claimed, in this case the ancient Egyptian would
learn how to grow maize, also Maya and Aztec would learn how
to growth the wheat, but it hasn't taken place….. and
the history didn't record it. The ancient Egyptians have never
known how to grow maize. There was also a difference concerning
the religious belief whereas the Nile was sacred to the Pharaohs
and related to the legend of Isis and Osoris….. the
Gods of Maya and Aztec were three, the God of rain, and the
others were the God of the sun and the God of war. Accordingly,
It was a civilization depends on rains to cultivate, if there
was any similarity between the civilization of Egypt and the
civilization that was later than it in Mexico and Peru so
these civilizations must get out from the womb of the ancient
Egyptian civilization …. This matter is possible as
the Mediterranean sea, and the Red Sea considered Egyptian
seas until one thousand years B.C….. the voyages of
the Egyptian fleet to Bont countries in the east of Africa
at the era of the Queen Hatshbsut, the eighteenth dynasty
(1490-1468 B.C) was a real evidence on that matter. Then the
trial of the Scandnavian adventurers in the sixties of the
20th century in which he could cross the Atlantic ocean in
a small boat that was similar to the fishing boat that was
sailing on the surface of the Nile on the days of the Pharaohs……
in addition the solar boats… as the boat displayed in
a museum in the south of the great pyramid in Giza and its
twin is still buried near to him. These boats consider the
biggest boat that were found before 2000 B.C, these boats
had the ability to sail trans sea’s and oceans.
This Scandnavian adventurer tried to prove that the Pharaohs
who crossed the Atlantic Ocean are the origin of the civilization
and the pyramids of Mexico and Peru.
Eighth: The face of the Sphinx turns exactly towards the east.
As we have above mentioned that the face of the Sphinx turns
exactly towards the east…. And now with the mockeries
who suspected in the ancient Egyptian civilization they say
nowadays the sun rises at true east at the equinox exactly
on the back ground of Pisces zodiac as it was done before
starting from 160 B.C and lasts to the year 2000 A.D) .
This age has begun round the period the Christ birth It's
not obvious if the slogan of the early Christianity that represented
the fish was taken accidentally, as it's about to end, the
sun will rise on a new background, he presented on the next
zodiac and represented in aquarius zodiac (2001 A.D-4160 A.D)
along 2160 years.
If we returned back to the year 2600 B.C in the period of
building the sphinx as the Egyptology says so we were at the
age of the Taurus (4480 B.C - 2320 B.C) It's noticed that
the civilizations of that era consecrated. The calf, as example
we see the Minia civilization in Crete island and the tombs
belonged the calves that were discovered in Egypt.
The people who suspected say: if the Sphinx was an astronomical
indicator and periodically well determined to say that his
face turns exactly to the real direction of the east, there
must be a position on Giza hill which at most take the astronomical
design, should contain at least a slogan to represent the
Taurus it was constructed at the age of Taurus. Despite the
feature of the Sphinx is (lion like). On the other hand, if
we considered that the Sphinx was constructed at the age of
Taurus we would notice that the zodiac that rises at dawn
at the east before the statue is n't leo zodiac, because this
zodiac will at 28o north east. The east direction parallel
to the statue (which lock forward to the true east exactly)
if we went back to the age of leo (we notice by the computerized
and astronomical calculations) and definitely in 10500 B.C,
the leo zodiac when it rises at the east appears in front
of the Sphinx statue, exactly as if the statue designer wanted
to leave a key for the future so that the people who come
late may find an evidence by which they could recognize.
The astronomical age which the Sphinx was established, starting
from this strong point….. John West - the leader of
the suspcious think that the statue of the sphinx at first
had no human face but a face of lion as the rest of his body,
and its better to say that amending the face took place at
the age of Chephren the pharaoh and the basic section of Chephren
pyramid in its turn was built in the period of building the
I say to the people who are suspecting… and answer
on their mockeries… if they had least amount of knowledge
about the history of Astronomy in general and specially the
history of zodiac circle with its recent figure, because the
ancient Egyptian definitely divided the circle of zodiacs
into 36 parts each part has its own guard from the souls to
care of them. And the ancient Egypt begin it with Sirius thus
a new group of astronomical groups appear every days. The
Egyptian watched it on its uprising in the east horizon and
before the sunrise. The Egyptian observations, and the control
of its appearance, and determine them during the night enable
him to put schedules "time table" to show the times
of appearing these groups and determine it…. and validity
degree of using these time tables, and calculating what are
left from the night's hours. When this star or other passes
at the reach of vision. To him, the beginning of the year
related to the sun rise with Sirius (19th of August) and was
the date of Nile flood.
In this way the ancient Egyptians participated in building
the foundation of Astronomy science. By using their observatories
, which spread all over Egypt in the south and north. The
centers of Ain Shams and Tiba considered the oldest and the
most important observatories.
As a result of their great efforts which they offered in
this field, they realized much knowledge about these Groups,
and recognizing the year and its divisions, dividing the day
Thus the ancient Egyptians consider really from the ancient
people which contributed in putting the first indices of the
real science of astronomy.
The Babylonians "Mesopotomia" in 600 B.C are the
first people who knew the circle of the zodiacs with its recent
figure, and it's divided into 12 zodiacs - each zodiac meets
30o and covers a month of the year, the Greek and the whole
world learnt it from them. We didn't find any sign or painting
for the cycle of Zodiac with its recent figure as 12 zodiac
(Aries, Tourius, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio,
Sagitourius, Capricorn, Aqarius, Pisces), but these which
were found in Dandra temple that belonged to Patolemy age
and was transported to Louvre museum, in Paris. But, who used
the circle of zodiacs with its recent division for 12 zodiacs
since eleven thousand years ago B.C. As the people who suspected
claimed….. at … to set up the statue of the Sphinx
at the age of uprising from leo zodiac at the equinox (21
March and 21 September) every year. Not only, they are mockeries,
but also ignorance.
Ninth: The linear development and the human
The linear development or the gradual development of the
human civilization that it advanced in a gradual way from
the primitive life of covers to the late, intelligent and
civilized period, this is the mastering theory up to date
and for all our the whole world. But John West the leader
of the suspicious people criticize this theory relying on
that man 5000 years ago lived in caves, and his civilization
characterized with agriculture and hunting. If the pyramids
were built 2500 - 3000 B.C, that means: It was built after
the Neolithic age directly or at the age of copper definitely
but there was an exciting question…. How could the community
that lived in 2500 B.C, at the dawn of the civilization and
related specially to Neolithic age to build these edifices
with these wonderful and magnificent specifications although
the volume of the stone for that some used stone was not less
than 200 tonns, due to mathematical incapability building
of pyramids involved the recognition of the conditions of
astronomy, mathematics and geometry that was beyond of the
agriculture community reach. John West always speak from the
point that his grandfather lived in caves 5000 years ago,
and this is the truth… but, did he know that some American
Archaeologists from his country, assumed in their own studies
that the first agricultural community lived on the earth 18000
years ago, in a region, in the west of Esena in South of Egypt
more than 13000 years before building the pyramids. The Egyptologists
say that Agriculture spread in Egypt 8000 years ago in the
whole of Egypt. It's certain that the astronomical observation’s
was not only a habit followed by the ancient Egyptians for
thousand of years but it was also a necessitate - where as
the Sirius related to the Nile floods - regarding to the great
importance of the Nile and its flood to the growing and Agricultural
community the ancient observed the heavens and followed the
movement of its celestial bodies. For thousand of years before
building the pyramids. It's possible that the ancient Egyptians
have transported this knowledge to other peoples around them.
In 1940 there were two French persons Griol and Deterilen
who discovered that the primitive tribe of Dogon, in the eastern
center of Africa (Kenya / Etheopia / Sudan) owned wonderful
astronomical information such as knowing that Sirius has only
one companion star that rotate around it once every 50 years
and the comparison star can't be seen with the naked eye even
in our age.
The astronomers discovered the companion star in the ninteenth
century only, it has been classified since a short time as
it is a white dwarf, and named it as Sirius B. Where Sirius
A is the brightest star in the night sky, its mass is twice
the mass of the sun, and the temperature of its atmosphere
is 9000oK. But, Sirius B is less in the brightness, and the
temperature of its photosphere is more higher than that of
Sirius A, but its mass is equal to the mass of our sun, and
the average density of the sun, for that its volume more less
than our sun (white dwarf).
The two French scientists were astonished, when they know
that this astronomical observations was a method used in the
tribe for thousand of years and there were dancing celebration
were given every 50 years, that represent the rotation period
of the companion star (Sirius B)around Sirius A.
There was an explanation for the German scientist Lotrbrown
from Hamburg observatory that the information about the companion
star of Sirius was provided to the tribe of Dogoon in an easy
way, he thinks when the state of the Pharaohs in ancient Egypt
in its glory there was still a huge block over run between
Sirius and its companion star this exchange case the historical
docuements assume this made the sirius group seemed to be
as a bright red star.
In page 93 from “The Back of the Ancient Astronomers”
for Antony Aveni and published in the U.S. there was a picture
of bone dated at 6500 B.C that was found near a lake on the
border between Zaire and Uganda in Africa, this bone was called
Ishango bone and it was used as a lunar calendar.
Kim Malville and Alfred Wendorf published in “Nature”
April 1997, about the megalithics that were discovered in
Nabta region in the south of the western desert of Egypt are
the oldest stones posts that were discovered up to date, and
are used probably as a temple and calendar at the same time.
The researchers mentioned in a report published that: these
megalithics were discovered in a position of Nabta and its
date returns to 6000 or 6500 years. So these stone posts become
1000 years older than the megalithic in Welet Shire in England
(stone heng) which carried before the title as the oldest
stone posts. Kim Malville the Professor of astronomy in Colorado
University in the U.S.A said in a statement:
These are (Nabta Megalithics) the oldest megalithics notarized
to the calendar in the world, the height of these megalithics
are 3 metres high and arranged side by side in the east west
Malville who specialized in the ancient science of astronomy
said: These megalithics are arranged vertically in a circle
represent the sun at the time of Summer Solistic (21 June)….
In several civilizatsions in the equatorial region the Zenth
considers an important event in the milenium, in the same
site there are several megalithic stand alone during the summer
and fall seasons, the Nile water partially covered the position
site, the ancient Egyptians may use it in the religious celebrations
to celebrate the beginning of the rain season. Malville added
saying : Arranging these stones reveal to symbolic engineering
that create between death, water and sun in the site of Nabta
there a circle of megalithics and a number of flat stones
that shaped like the stones used in cofins and five rows of
the vertical megalithics.
There was a stone that looked like a cow and the archaeologists
found remains of live stock in the site. The shepherds in
the stone age that proceed to the site used the live stock
in their religious ceremonies as the tribes of Massai in Africa
found manual products that included Ostrich eggs on which
some paintings were sculptured.
The site of Nabta was discovered several years ago, A team
headed by professor Fred Wonderful from the Southern Maodest
University in USA.
In private communication with Kim Malville in February 2001,
he sent to me his new paper about Nabta megalithic alignments,
where he quoted that:
These megalithic alignments may not have been designed as
sighting devices to establish calendrical time, but rather
they may have commemorated a perceived connection between
heaven and earth, which was especially vital at the time of
summer solstice and the monsoon rains.
Construction of the ceremonial center at Nabta may have
been motived, in part, by the diminishing availability water
at Nabta and a consequent attention to rainmaking rituals.
While standing water appears to have been present in the play
a following monsoon rains in the middle neolithic, there is
no evidence of open water in the late Neolithic. Cultural
memories of past wetter conditions at Nabta may have motived
astronomical ceremonies to induce rain. The sky provided a
number of phenomena associated with the monsoon rains: the
sun reached the zenith, megaliths cost their smallest shadow,
the calendar circle marked summer solstice sunrise, and the
megaliths marked the rising of bright stars in the eastern
Our evidence of attention to the prominent stars, Sirius,
Dubhe, and those of the belt of Orion, coupled with the recurrent
symbolism of cattle in the earth and the sky, suggests cultural
connections across both space and time in southern Egypt.
The astronomical traditions of Nabta may have been part of
the inheritance of the nomadic cultures that was passed to
populations of the Nile valley.
During the period between 22 to 28 February 1998 a debate
was held in Cairo it was about the priority of the desert
studies. Workshop between the Egyptian and American sides,
Professor Archaeologist Fikry Hassan from the Institute of
Antiquities, London University, England wrote booklet about
the workshop studies-in page (33) he mentioned that the antiquities
of Nabta returned to 7000 years B.C. – 9000 B.C. years
Following the generally accepted archaeological beliefs concerning
pre-dynastic times, Cyril Aldred informs us in his book “The
Egyptians” that in late Paleolithic times the retreating
ice cap affected the climate of North Africa, causing it to
become progressively drier. The Nile, formerly a vast inland
lake, had shrunk to assume it present contours, which necessitated
the scattered inhabitants of the region to congregate on the
verges of the great river in their search for water. The early
pre-dynastic period, calculated from around 5000 B.C. and
verified from archaeological finds in the Faiyum depression,
and Mosta Gedda in the north, and Dier Tasa in the South ,
encompassed the Neolithic and chalcalithic periods. These
early predynastic times are allocated to the period from 4000
BC to 3600 BC, the main sites being those at El-Badari, Merimba,
El-Amra, Nagada, El-Ballas, Hu, Abydos, and Mohasna. The middle
and late predynastic period is reckoned to be from 3600 B.C.
to 3200 B.C., after which we enter the realms of recorded
history. What we do know, however, is that during the Amration
period between 4000 and 3600 BC, named after the archeological
site at El-Amra, near Abydos in Southern Egypt, there was
an influx of a race of broad-headed (brachycephalic) people,
while the indigenous population of Hamites belonged to the
long-headed (dolechocephalic) type. In fact, all the evidence
points to the fact that this spread of foreign influence in
the fourth million BC, like that of the second, came from
Did John West, after what was mention, still think that the
ancient Egyptians lived in caves as his grand fathers did
5000 years ago.
Tenth: The great pyramid as geodesic pointer.
The new explorers noticed that the great pyramid (Cheops)
considers a geodesic pointer, geodesy as it's known the science
which concern to determine the sites and ground center, the
shape of the earth, its volume by the different measurements
in a complete accuracy. The great pyramid stands exactly at
point on the surface of the earth that at the distance of
one third between equator and the North pole, its meridian
axis (North - South) parallel to earth axis (North - South)
with deviation not more than three out of sixty of degree
(3 arc minutes), consequently its location is more accurate
than the building constructed on Greenwich longitude (0) /
London its value of inclination a nine out of sixty degree
( 9 arc minutes) .
If we draw the longitude from the north to the south at
the great pyramid, we will find that it intersects Nile Delta
into two equal parts, and if we draw two diagonal lines extended
from the vertex of the pyramid and pass by its two base angles
the north- west and north east this process form a triangle
cover the region of the whole Nile Delta.
The eastern diagonal pass on the longtudinal 32o 28- at
the east (the region of Balosa - at the east of Port Said)
these are the official east borders of the Nile delta after
unifying the two regions of Egypt the upper and down regions
at the beginning of dynasty age. The diagonal at the west
pass on the longtudinal 28o 50\ at the east (RAAS AL TEEN
region, Alexandria) and these are the official west borders
of the Nile delta after the union of two regions (upper and
down of Egypt).
The middle diagonal pass on the longtudinal 31o 14\ exactly
at the east at the middle route between the two other longtudinal
( 1o 14\) from each other.
The North: (we have to add and mention that the north direction
was drawn at the bottom of the map not at the top as we did
nowadays) The north borders that lies on the latitudes 31o
6\ to the middle point of River Nile mouth on the Mediterranean
sea where the seven branches of the Nile Delta, Where they
are from the east to the west (Pylosey - Tanisy - Mandizy
– Fatimi-Sbnity-Polypeto - Canopy) at the beginning
of dynasty age (but in the modern state two branches disappeared).
At the moment there are only two branches, Damietta and Rossetta
(Rasheed). The south borders (at the beginning of the dynasty
of ancient Egypt age) lies on the latitude 24o 6\ it accurately
determine the site of Elphantin Island (Aswan) where setting
up an observatory for the sun and stars that played very important
role along the ancient history of Egypt. On this spot the
most ancient for its (sacredness) and that form a stone hill
on the west bank of the rever Nile, the artery of the Egyptian's
life, the great pyramid was set up as it were geodesic sight
seeing for the cape of petta region, that lies at the point
of latitude 30o 6\ to the north and longitude 31o 14\ to the
east (where Alkanater Alkhiria now) on the north west side
of Cairo. The pyramid itself lies to the east, this site was
accurately chosen because it's so high for the earth that
it allowed for pure astronomical observations, this site is
geologically settled down. That enable for building an edifice
that weighed 6 million tonns of stones, 147 metres high on
area equal 13 feddans (feddan = 4200 m2) includes its attachments.
Now, the meaning of building a great pyramid to be geodesic
pointer for the Delta of the Nile, it means that this great
establishment was built after this region has got its economic
and political importance but not as a region of swamp as it
was lonous geologically in pre history period.
The regions of down Egypt (Delta) started its real politics
flourish, when most of these regions got together in two small
kingdoms during the first or the second quarter of the fifth
millenium B.C (the same period of first Nakada civilization
- Nepet - Qena Governorate, Upper Egypt). In the east of Delta,
there a kingdom was set up its capital was (Angha) near to
the recent town of Smnoud its flag take the shape of spear
its great God took a human figure, two feathers, and (fly
whisk) that represented the mace in the historic ages, and
crocked stick to express soveregnity, that means that the
traditional symbols of the Egyptian monarchy beat its roots
to the pre-history period as the Professor Doctor Abd-El Aziz
Saleh “In The Cyclopedia of the History of Egypt Through
the Ages” (History of Ancient Egypt) (The series of
Egyptians' history) No 100 in 1997. (The General Egyptian
Authority of the Book, Cairo, Egypt).
In the west of Delta, the second kingdom was set up it considered
the God "Horus" as its great "God" in
a figure of hawk. It capital might be established in the site
of Damanhour town now-its name means (Hour town) in the ancient
language of Egypt.
The political step has completed through the union between
the two kingdoms of down of Egypt in one state that took the
city of (Sao) as a capital, on its ruins the recent town of
(SA Al Hagr) was established near the Nile branch of Rosseta
"Rashead" and took the Godess (Neet) as protectress
as it was considered war's sponsor, and took the "bee"
as a badge for its kingdom as it expressed its sustainable
and productive work. Its ruler was crowned in red crown. These
appearance have become in its turn-as symbols for the historical
Egyptian monarchy that maintained them until its last days.
Under the leadership of Auno, the ruler of down Egypt the
political and cultural union was achieved at the age that
preceded the age of dynasty and established (Auno) as a capital
for the whole Egypt "Heliopolis - Now they are Ain Shams
and Mattarya" the age of that political and religious
union seemed to be the second age of (Nkada) and its civilization
was set up in down Egypt they dyed its civilization with its
dye and developed it in his presence but the affairs of Heliopolis
state (Ain Shams now) were not comfortable, and the disputes
that broke out near the capital its is, and also in center
of Egypt couldn't be avoided, these disputes weakened its
existence, upper Egypt dared to separate and rupture its union.
At the end the kings of upper Egypt inhabited in (Nekhn)
a town on its ruins the town of (Al Koum Al Ahmr) north of
Edfu was set up and granted its divinity son the God (Haur)
the upper Egyptian - and took the hawk as its symbol, too.
The rulers of this kingdom were crowned in long and white
crown. They took a plant as their symbol it was called (Saut)
it might be from reed, rush, bamboo. And belonged to this
plant saut they called their people with (Saut) and title
(Nieso) where as their own kingdom take the flower of lily
or lotus as their badge neighbouring to the capital (Nkhen).
There was religious suburb was called (nkhab) it was built
on its ruins, it kept its name now it's the town of (Alkap)
and worshiped a Godess and took female of eagle as a symbol
to it the rulers considered it as their sponsor and protectress,
they put its symbol on their foreheads against the godess
of the North and its symbol. From this upper Egyptian kingdom
one of its most and last important propagandiat for its real
bed and historical the union get out , they are the king (Al
Akrab) and (Narmar) their capital might be transported from
(Nkhen) the farthest region of upper Egypt to the town of
(Sany) in the center of upper Egypt it's now near (Girga).
The king (Al Akrab) paved by his strong works to the way
for his son to realize the union between the north and south.
Narmer could realize the real union between the Delta and
upper Egypt and founded the first dynasty 3222 B.C. and established
the town of (Ang Tah), that meant the town of the white wall,
or the white fence and was known later with the name of (Manf)
the capital of Egypt.
After this historical detailed presentation for the age
of pre-dynasty, through which we aimed at determining the
period in which the town of (Auno) was built, it might be
at the end of the fifth millenium before Christ or at the
beginning of the fourth millenium before Christ. We will go
back to Robert Bauval in his book (the Orion Mystery) which
wrote it with Adrian Gilbert and published in London:
In the second edition in 1995 - he wrote at the top cover
(unlocking the secrets of the pyramids) and wrote at the bottom
"the revolutionary discovery that rewrites history".
It was nonsense mockeries from non-specialist who suspected
the Pharaonic roots of the ancient Egyptian Civilization.
He attributed building the pyramids to a plan putted in the
eleventh millenium before the Christ but later we will have
a situation with him in page 226 from his book, he put the
figure No 22 and comment on this figure, geodesic system connects
the great pyramid Heliopolis and Letopolis (as there was another
sacred city called Letopolis, was its near to the pyramid
of Abu Rawash). Where there was a tomb for the Pharaoh (Ged
Def Raa) who ruled Egypt for 8 years, he was the son of Cheops
and brother of the king Chephren, the turn of Letopolis at
the west of the Nile was mentioned in the main texts of the
pyramids with Heliopolis, the sacred town to the east of the
Nile. The Geodesic system which Bauval mentioned in his book,
about a triangle his vertexes are the great pyramid, the temple
of the sacred bird the heron in Heliopolis. At the middle
there was a post, over the post there was the celestial sacred
stand (BenBen Stone) and the town of Heliopolis 24 km north
east and the distance between the great pyramid and Letopolis
16 km north, where as the distance between Heliopolis and
Letoplis is 18 km, if the pyramid was geodesic pointer for
a sacred region extends from Heliopolis to Letopolis and put
Menf, (Memphis) in the consideration. How was the great Pyramid
built before the existence of the three towns? Or where were
they? Whom putted the plan of building Giza Pyramids.
The existence of the three towns? Bauval thinks that the
ancient Egyptian civilization is as executing agreed engineering
plan through along run periods relied on religous and ideological
background, geometric and surveying and very accurate knowledge
for the astronomy conditions, and each pharaoh executed the
part related to this age - from the religous aspect Bauval
thinks that the Egyptians of the fourth dynasty thought that
the milky way is the real Nile, and the ground Nile is just
reflaction for it and the heaven itself was divided into two
parts such as dividing the ancient Egypt into upper and down
Where as Osoris king on a celestial region exactly look
like (similar to the region of his king dom on the earth before
his death, according to Bouval put in his belief that all
the pyramids of the ancient state is the fall of Orion group
on the earth on the banks of the Nile as it is in the heavens
each according to his place and sparkle (brightness) Cheops
who connected to the bright at star in the Orion group is
the owner of greatest pyramid, Chephren succeeded him …..
and so on Bauval attributed the execution of this engineering
plan that based on religous and ideological background to
a period called "the first period" the Pharaoh called
him in their constituents (zibtibi). Bouval attributed it
to the year 10500 B.C. for astronomical and guessing reasons
we mentioned it at the begining of the article. Bauval thinks
that the Sphinx was built in the first period (10500 B.C.)
and this statue is outside the rank of Giza pyramids. It is
impossible, unfortunately, a lot of common readers in Europe,
America, and the world believed these mockeries, and his book
was sold in a great amounts in England 1994 in his first edition,
after the British TV has transmitted directly more than a
meeting with him and he talked about his book and his theory
which rewrite the history!!!
Eleventh: The tombs of the worker, the pyramids
During the last decade of the 20th century the workers' village
of the pyramids builder was discovered neighbouring to the
pyramids itself, the tombs of workers were discovered, the
studies on the skeletons that obtained out of the tombs were
performed and it indicated the following:
(1)The skeletons belonged to persons the
average of their length 170 cm tall, and they are the same
length belong to us at the moment.
(2) There is compressibility the vertebral
column for most of the workers as a result of carrying and
pulling the stones for building the pyramids.
(3) There is a sign for the disease of
Bilharzia in the bones.
(4) The paintings and the colorful drawings
inside the workers' village proved that the workers has the
same features like ours and had the suntan complexion like
the most of us even the way of behaving the moustache that
is followed in the Delta and upper Egypt…. The drawings
indicated one of the workers pulling a small pyramid, it seemed
to be the stone that was put at the top of the pyramid when
they finished building it, the pharaoh himself comes to put
this small pyramid at the top of the pyramid among a great,
folk, and religions celebration. The great ancient Egyptian
engineers designed the pyramids such as (Imhoteb) - they had
knowledge of engineering, medicine and astronomy - Imhoteb
was granted some titles, one of this title the chief of the
observer that’s to say the chief of astronomers, the
observer of the stars and planets in the sky in late periods
the quality of divinity was added to his titles 600 B.C from
his favorite title (the god of wisdom).
The ancient farmers built the pyramids without scorn or
slavery. For a national project agreed to religions belief
in that time…. As we said the pharaoh comes and put
the small pyramid over the top the pyramid when they finished
the building in a great happiness and a great token celebration.
It's an evidence mean that the pyramid was built with love,
not by mockery as wrote by some writers of Jews and Zionists.
Dr. Zahi Hawas the President of the General Authority of
Antiquities of Egypt, and the General Secretary of Supreme
Council of Antiquities of Egypt said in an article (Saturday
reportage) that was published in Alahram on 7 June 1997: on
the ancient Egyptian tombs we have found all the evidence
that prove the way the ancient Egyptian followed to transport
the stones by which the great pyramid was built, as one of
the most immense Egyptian pyramid there are 105 pyramids in
Egypt….. if you come to the region of the pyramid and
wanted to know how was the pyramid built? You must known ,
and search first for the quarry from which the stones were
cut. Secondary… on the (Al Ranb) the ascending route
on which the stones were transported the ascending route was
immense and was built from (a stone-rabel), they were small
stones covered with a layer of argil on which the sleds ascend,
if this route disappeared it must have a mark under the ground
and this what Zahi discovered - Zahi was still speaking we
have found the stones of Cheops pyramid were taken from a
place 84 metres to the south of the pyramid, the ancient Egyptians
have established two ascending routes near to each other a
million stones were transported by sleds.
Twelfth: The late ice age.
According to the geological studies, the ancient climate
of the earth, and Anthropology, the late ice age lies between
60000-10000 B.C (its maximum was at 19000 B.C.) there a great
contrast about the saying the legendary people of ATLANTIS
continent had a flourishing civilization attributed to the
period from 15000 B.C to 10000 B.C.
This people died out as a result of Ice-drifting which reached
to the pyramids region, and was perished the ancient Egyptians
succeeded this legendary people and inherited these lofty
edifice. The late ice age extended from 60000 B.C to 10000
B.C that means the legendary people of Atlantis continent
died out at the end of the late ice age.
Where as there is no ice drifting but sustainable shrink
of the ice.
Does the ice have a destructive effect on
some kind of human beings without affecting on the others.
So why did the ancient Egyptians survived?.
All the studies of anthropology about the man who lived
in the pre-history proved that the Egyptians were existent
in this region of the world since more than 10000 B.C and
all of them were from populations in the south of Mediterranean
sea, primary cultural centers were found at the beginning
of the modern ice-age from (8000 to 5000 B.C) in Egypt and
attributed to the civilization of (Marmadet Beni Salama near
the cape of Nile Delta), and the civilization of Fayum at
the entrance of middle Egypt, the civilization of Dertasa
in Assuit inside upper Egypt. These cultural centers weren't
the whole cultural mob in this age but these were the centers
where the modern archaeological researches were performed
more than any other Egyptian centers that are contemporary
to them. After mentioning these 12 evidences that our ancient
civilization was pure and of Egyptian essentiality we say
to the people who suspected the ancient Egyptian and its pharaonic
(1) The vacuity of the edifices of the
hill of Giza pyramids from any sign belongs the fourth dynasty
that built them, or its vacuity from any pharoanic mummies
belong to the fourth dynasty that sticks to its name is not
an evidence that theories about the ancient Egyptian civilization
are not right.
It's known that the mummies were stolen and this interprets
the reason if not finding these mummies, there was a strong
tendency that these paintings covered the wall of the pyramids
outside - then the factors of corrosion and the time erroded
them, the internal paintings might n't be followed by the
fourth dynasty but later it was followed as the paintings
found. In the pyramid of Wanuis in Saqarra, that was constructed
in the age of the fifth dynasty.
(2) Existing the big boats in the Egyptian
desert, as the people who suspect said had no evidence of
existing these boats but the remains of the army the Persian
King Campyses under the great sea of sand in the west desert
but without any marine boats.
On the 21st December 1996 an expedition from five members
from the Center of Desert Archaeology Research (Ce.R.D.O)
in Verse – Italy by the leading of Professor Alfredo
Castiglioni, the Director of Ce. R. D. O., and membership
of a Geologist from the Egyptian Geological Museum in Cairo
(Mr. Aly Barkat) were carrying out a geological survey in
the Bahrin Oasis area in the western desert of Egypt, with
the objective of investigating by metal detector the presence
of iron meteorites. While working in the vicinity of a sandstone
scarp, the researchers observed a natural shelter measured
approximately 35m in length, 1.80m in height and was about
3m deep. With an east-west trend, it turned to the north in
the very last stretch and then ended.
On the eastern and, a half-interred pot was found, only
its rim being visible out of the sand, whereas at the western
and some possibly human bones occurred.
• Mr. Aly Barakat found on the soil surface the hilt
of a dagger, lying at a distance of about 1.70 m from the
Not far from the dagger (at 1.20m approximately), the dagger
blade was lying on the sand. Further search in the shelter
did not reveal any more evidence.
• At the western and, just before the shelter bent
to the north (at 1.50m from the bone fragments), two arrow
tips occurred on the surface.
• A search outside the shelter led to the discovery
of some stone heaps, possible tombs. The metal detector did
not indicate the presence of metal. Not being in possession
of the necessary authorization, the presumed tombs were not
• At a distance of about 400 m from the shelter, on
the southern side of the scarp, a small come sheltered a remarkable
heap of human, and possibly animal, bones. Among the bones
a bracelet was found, probably made in silver.
. At the foot of the scarp occurred two more arrow tips
and an earring possibly in silver, with four tiny spheres
in the same metal.
• The objects have been recorded and photographed,
a list was compiled and the material was given to Mr. Aly
Barakat. An analysis of the findings , based on the photographs,
suggests they most likely belong the Achaemenid period.
In 2 October 2000 Professor Alfredo Castiglioni wrote to
me, to arrange together a new expedition to the Bahrin Oasis
in the western desert of Egypt. This expedition gives the
opportunity to carry out a more through search, and this can
be done by following the presumed itinerary of the Cambyses’
army up to the shelter where the Archaemenid material was
found in 1996.
Based on a historical search, Ce.R.D.O, has been able to
hypothesize a possible route, and we would like to follow
it in the course of this new mission. From El-Khargha Oasis
(the island of the blissful) described in book III of Herodotus
History, the last Oasis where Cambyses’ army was seen.
The expedition should follow a western direction to the Gilf
El-Kebir, up to the point where the track coming from the
south is crossed. Here, a north direction would be followed
along the great sand sea inter dune corridor, up to Siwa,
which was the final destination of Cambyses’ army.
When Campyses conquered Egypt in the sixth
It must be noted that, in ancient maps, Siwa had been erroneously
located about 150 km more to the south than its real position.
Possibly the army, reaching the locality indicated in the
maps, did not find Siwa and ran into a sandstorm. The people
therefore, looking for refuge, dispersed in various directions.
A group of soldiers may have tried to find protection from
the mortal southern wind (as Herodotus stated) in the shelter,
where the first mission found the first Achaomenid evidence
in 1996. A further task of mission would be the search of
pottery depots of the “Abu Ballas” type. Historical
sources report that the Persian armies moved in the desert
by preparing, well in advance, real artificial wells by burying
hundreds of water pots. Herodotus reports: “…
the inhabitants … fill with water the clay pots and
take them to areas… that are waterless” (History,
book II, 6, II). The new mission will be in the autumn of
2003, where we arrange for it, with the Italian Colleagues.
Greek and Romans were much affected by the pharaonic religion
and adopted a lot of their traditions that attributed to the
pharaonic religion that the doctrine of worshiping Isis spread
all over the Roman empire specially in the country of AL GHAL
(France) "non" that happened also to the worship
of (Osoris) and (Anopis). Alexander the great because of his
great love and admiration for the Egyptian civilization considered
himself as descendent and a son for the Egyptian Gods as the
kings of Egypt and their religions, where he chose Alexandria
not Macedonia to inherit a theatre as a tomb to be buried
this assure the great love of their king for Egypt. And the
cultural role that Alexandria played and for its inherited
creeds in the days of the pharaohs.
(3) The basic conception that thinkers of
the west put for the origin (root) of the western civilization
considers that the fathers of this civilization are the ancient
Greek philosophers they are racists they didn't like to confess
that their civilization come from the womb of "Tiba"
the African suntan (of brown or black eyes), but they claimed
that it came from the womb of Athens, the white European city
(of blue or grey eyes), that the matter that was refuted by
the Greek philosophers by themselves.
For example the bad and hard words of O.Neugebauer in his
books of title: A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy-Part
Two- Book III Egypt- which published by springer – Verlong
(1975), where he said in the first page of the book:
Egypt has no place in a work on the history of mathematical
astronomy. Nevertheless I devate a sparate “Book”
on this subject in order to draw the reader’s attention
to its insignificance which can not be too strongly emphasized
in comparison with the Babylanion and the Greek contribution
to the development of scientific Astronomy. Egypt provides
us with the exceptional case of a highly sophisticated civilization,
which flourished for many centuries without making a single
contribution to the development of the exact sciences. I am
sure, this opinion of O. Neugebaure is not fair and honest.
Also, O. Neugebaure is approximately canceled the role of
our Great Arabian – Islamic civilization during the
period (800-1400A.D.), in developing of the mathematical astronomy
and put instead of it something named Hebrew civilization?!!!
Most Greek and Roman writers thought firmly that Pythagoras,
Plato and Homer learnt their philosophy from the ancient Egyptian
Dydoras mentioned in the first century after the birth of
Christ that the most cultural people of the Greek looked forward
to visiting Egypt to study the laws, and the high level ethics
although Egypt was closed before the foreigners. The history
told to us about the ancient who visited Egypt such as Orapyo,
Homer, Pythagoras and Solon. Herodot (485-425 B.C) quoted
the approach of the Egyptians of astronomical calculation
is better than the Greek approach. Strabo the historian (64
B.C-25 A.D) quoted that the ancient Egyptians revealled to
the Greek the secretes of he whole year which they ignored
as many other matters. Christominus (30 A.D) wrote that: the
Egyptian diviner scorned from the Greek because they ignored
a lot of things.
Today, there are a project between Minufiyia University and
the Supreme Council of Antiquities in Cairo , to surve the
ancient Egyptian monuments from Giza to Abu – Simbel
(Temples, Pyramids, and Tombs) for three years (2003-2005)
to find the relation between the solar and steller positions
in the sky and the orientation of these monuments, also to
study the astronomy at the ancient Egyptian from papyrus.
The project aim is to know the knowledge of the ancient Egyptian
by the mathematical positional astronomy and the astronomical
calculation. Also, to know the knowledge of the Astro-religion
at the pharaohs, beside their religion for the sun. The team
work is national and consists from:
1- Professor Mosalam Shaltout, the principal
2- Dr. Zahi Hawas (Egyptologist). The General
Secretary of the Supreme Council of Antiquities in Cairo.
3- Dr. Magdi Fekry (Egyptologist) Faculty
of Tourism, Minufiya University, El-Sadat City .
The project have the priority as national project for the
defence about the ancient Egyptian Civilization. It will be
contained many of the young astronomers and young Egyptologists
in late time , where we need more efforts for Egypt and the
purity of her history.
At the end we would like to say in the seventies of 20th
century the Americans belonged to studied the interior put
of the Sphinx, they divided it into two phases, some scientists
belonged to the corporation of Edgarecase participated in
performing this studies. Edgarecase was an American fortuneteller
claimed that he transmigrated with the Pharaonic God "RAA",
he forecasted that there is a secret door in the great pyramid
will be discovered before the end of the 20th century, they
used several developed technics as passing metal rails in
the rocks, and an electric current to measure under ground
frequencies, using magnetic measure aero and thermal photography
by using infrared, although the studies didn't lead to firm
results. The team who worked in this process thought there
are two tunnels under the back paws of the statue. The evidence
that we drove to use it in defending ancient Egyptian civilization
are scientific facts and draw question marks before the scientific
researches, financed by a corporation that had prior attitude
about the pyramids and its history as a corporation Edgarcase
foundation, its American dead founder the fortuneteller see
that they are older than its recent history and connected
with ancient Israeli forecasts. We called for not dealing
with this racial corporation even it has taken the scientific
approach, because it has missed the scientific honesty, and
expose our history for plundering and robbing and quaked the
ancient Egyptian civilization away from its Pharaonic roots.
We also called for co-operating with any national or international
agency to render the basic sciences, and modern technology
to reveal any mystery surround our ancient edifices, as the
scientific facts will assure, not to negate the reality that
the ancient Egyptian civilization, is pure Egyptian in its
origin 100% since the dawn of the history. These corporations
must be trust worthy scientifically on the international level.
Professor Doctor, Abd El Aziz Saleh Said that the vocabularies
of ancient Egypt still alive in the contemporary Egyptian
society, connecting its population to their by gone the names
of their village are on every one lips as well as their towns,
their agricultural months, also their daily affairs must be
on every one lips our ancient Egypt is still a live in our
contemporary society specially in our folk and rural (quarters)
with its spirit, habits, endurance, faith, ethic and its character,
Professor Abd Elaziz Saleh added in “The Cyclopedia
of Egypt History Through the Ages (History of Ancient Egypt)
so thinkers of Manf turned with their idea to the creature
and creator in their doctrine to denudation, abstraction,
and keep it away from materialization and in corrosion in
Ain Shams doctrine, they were about to penetrate some of what
the heaven books themselves assured when they attributed to
creating to the heart, tongue means the will and the order,
they approached to some extent to the holy revelation if Almighty
God "Allah" decreed a matter he say be, then it
becomes not only did they consider their God as creator but
also legislator and fair they spoil the highness of their
thinking when they admitted the presence of many Gods beside
him, and Justified their behavior that the God created them
from himself and advocate them, and to be worshipped and take
care of their temples as he consider them until arising the
dawn of monotheism in the eighteenth dynasty, with the birth
of the body (Imnhoteb the fourth) at the beginning of 1380
B.C this King, was Philosopher, who called himself the name
of (Aknatoun), the historian of religion interpreted it as
the apostle of the God he worshiped his God in his prayers
- What a lot of your works, they are unknown
to the people.
Oh! You are the only god, the other are powerless
- Created the earth as you wish, None beside
-Created all the people, and all creatures
in the universe.
- All what walks on his feet, crawl, or fly
with his wing.
Your are undaunted, you are in the eternity
“Praise the lord, the only God, he has no partner,
no boy in his royalty”. Did Akhanaton get out from the
qualities of Allah the holy names in hymns ?
No..he means the aloneness and unity of the God, which is
the main principal of our religion ISLAM. Do these ancient
Egyptians deserve the love and the honor of belonging to them
and defend their great ancient civilization?
The answer, yes
1- J. E. West ; Serpent in the sky, Julian Press, New York
2- R. A. Schwaller de Lubicz ; Sacred Science, Inner Traditions
International, Rochester, Vermont, (1961).
3- R. Bauval; The Orion Mystery, William Heineman Ltd, London,
4- M. Hope ; Atlantis: Myth or Reality? , Penguin, Arkana,
5- W. Mattews; Geology Made Simple, Heineman, London, UK.
Translated to Arabic by Academy of Scientific Research and
Technology Cairo – Egypt (2002).
6- R. Said, The River Nile: Geology, Hydrology, and Utilization,
7- J. A. Sublaff; The cities of Ancient Mexico, Reconstructing
a lost world, Tomas and Headson, London, (1980).
8- A. F. Aveni; Ancient Astronomers, Publishing House of
Smithsonian Books, Washington, (1993).
9- E. Krupp; Sky Watchers, Shamans, and Kings : Astronomy
and the Archaeology of Power, Grephs Observatory, Los Angles,
10- A. Saleh; History of Ancient Egypt-The series of Egyptian’s
History, No. 100, Published by the General Authority of The
Book, Cairo, Egypt, (1997). In Arabic.
The author in Some Words
Dr . Mosalam SHALTOUT
Professor of Solar – Terrestrial Physics
Cairo , Egypt
Professor Mosalam SHALTOUT was born in a village named Sanagra
near to the city of Abu- Hamad in the El- Sherkia region (the
eastern edge of Nile Delta) of Egypt on May 9,1946 to Ahmed
Mosalam SHLTOUT and Fatma Hassan ESSA. He has been married
to Mervat Sadek El- Saud , a physician, since April 5, 1974
. He has two sons , Mohamed , a Computer Engineer , and Ahmed
– Mazen , an Electric Power Engineer . Dr Shaltout earned
a B. SC. in physics and astronomy and M.SC in Solar physics
and a Ph.D in solar Flares in 1967 .1973 and 1977 , respectively
, all from the Faculty of Science at Cairo University.
While still pursuing his advanced education , Dr Shaltout
worked as a Research Assistant at the National Research Institute
of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG) in the Helwan area of
Cairo, Egypt between 1968, 1977 He then worked as a Researcher
at NRIAG from 1978 to 1981 Following this from 1981 to 1985
Dr Shaltout served as an Associate Professor of Solar- Terrestrial
physics in the Faculty of Science of King Abd-EL- Aziz University
in Jeddah , Saudi Arabia , He has been a full Professor at
NRIAG since May 1987 . Moreover , he was vice-chairman of
the Solar and Space Research Department from 1989 to 1995,
and Chairman of the same department from 1995 to 1998.
In addition to his service in Academia , Dr Shaltout was
a consultant for the New and Renewable Energy Authority in
Cairo from 1990 to 1991 He is the author of Egyptian Solar
Radiation Atlas , the first book of its kind , and Typical
Solar Radiation Year of Egypt . Other books he has penned
are “the Sun and Nile Flooding” and “Energy
Management and the Future Horizons”. He has written
many scientific and technical articels for international professional
journals , including approximately 85 articles in the field
of Solar Energy and the Environment ,and about 65 papers in
the filed of Space Science and Technology. Dr. Shaltout is
also the national contact for the World Renewable Energy Network
(UK), and served as such for the International Solar Energy
Society (Germany) from 1988 to 1998. He is a member of the
International Astronomical Union (IAU) and the International
Association of Solar Energy Education (IASEE); he served on
the Technical Committee of the Supreme Council of Scientific
Research, Cairo, between 1994and1996 Additionally, Professor
Shaltout has been Egypt‘s representative at more than
65 international conference and world congresses during the
period 1985 to2002. He has received several honors, including
the Country Encouragement Prize in Physics in 1986 and the
country Medal of Excellence, First Class, in 1995 amongst
Notably, Dr, Shaltout is one of the most famous leading intellectuals
in the Arab world ,and is well know to the general public
through television , radio and newspaper. Also ,he is an independent
writer on the subjects of national strategy and project in
the fields of scientific research , technology development
, energy and the environment .Recently ,he has suggested a
few world wide project for the 21st Century in articles written
for international journals ,they including solar hydrogen
production from Nasser Lake in Upper Egypt , the Abu Simel
Radio telescope in Upper Egypt as a part from VLBI in the
world, and testing the Martian exploration instrument in the
Western Desert of Egypt. On a slightly different note ,his
avocational are interests reading ,history ,philosophy ,the
arts ,classical music and museums.
He work now, as Chairman for Space Research Center, Desert.
Environment Research Institute, Minufiyia University, El-Sadat
The pronaos leads into a hypostyle hall, with four square
pillars painted with images of the pharaoh before the various
gods. The walls too are decorated with liturgical scenes,
including the transportation of the sacred barge. The ceiling
has been painted by a traditional scenes like the cartridge
and the eagle of the extended wings.
In the northern and western walls, we find entrances lead
to a group of chambers were used as stores for the priests
because the scenes of those chambers wall are liturgic.
The middle entrance in the western wall leads to a smaller
hall of four squared pillars of liturgic scenes. This hall
has three doors in the northern and southern ones are of unpainted
chambers, while the western one is of the sacrarium (The Holy
of the Holies) which is the extension of the temple axis.
On the western wall of the sacrarium, we find four seated
statues cut into the rock. From the right to the left, these
statues are for “Ra Harmakhis”, King Ramses II,
“Amon Ra” and “Ptah”. In the middle
of the sacrarium, we find the a table of oblations on which
the oblations were offered on when the sunlight enters after
SUN PERPENDICULARITY ON ABU SIMBEL TEMPLE
Prof. Dr. Mosalam Shaltout
Chairman of Space Research Center, Desert Environment Research
Minufiya University, El- Sadat City, Egypt.
Tel. : + 2 ( 048 ) 603208 ; +2 ( 048 )602178
Fax : +2 ( 048 ) 600404
Mobile : +2 (010) 515-6443
E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
http : www.m-shaltout.com
Abu Simbel Temple is the biggest one cut in the rock in all
over the world. It can be considered as a sign in the old
architecture and geometry. It is difficult to say how the
large building like it is found in the far areas of the country.
There are two reasons for this: either Abu Simbel hill has
a special holiness or the Pharaoh might wanted to dazzle his
neighbors in an area near the second fall by showing them
his force and wealth.
There are many evidences state that the origin of the idea
of building Abu Simbel temple was of “King Seti I”.
Also, it was found that a large internal part was cut before
“King Ramses II” rising on the throne in 1301
B.C. But nobody can say how much “King Seti I”
was responsible of the temple finishing and specially its
front. As we know, “King Ramses II” was not referring
the favor to any one before him.
The war prisoners built Abu Simbel temple. They finished
their work before 1259 B.C. This temple has been dedicated
for the worship of “Ra Harmakhis” like many other
ones in Nubia. This god has been combined with the sun. It
is represented as a human body with a hawk head wearing the
solar disc. So, the purpose of foundation of this temple in
this place is the sun worship.
The most important points of resemblance of this temple
are the four colossal seated statues of “King Ramses
II” cut in the hill rocks. Each two of those statues
are seated on each side of the temple entrance. They are more
than 65 ft representing the “King Ramses II” wearing
the double Egyptian crown (Pschent). Also, we can find some
relatively small statues of “Queen Nefertari”
(the most beautiful woman of all the beautiful ones) and some
royal children. All of these four groups stand on a high base
of a cartridge of “King Ramses II” and a group
of Asian and Negroes captives painted on. The thrones, which
are boxes shaped, have been painted by the traditional groups
that represent the unification of the two lands (Delta and
Upper Egypt). The front, which represents the background of
the four colossal statues, has been painted on the shape of
a frame has a row of 22 seated baboon monkeys have their arms
up for sun worship. It is known that baboon monkeys usually
shout at sunrise. Also, on the entrance, we find a statue
of the god of the sun “Ra Harmakhis” has a hawk
The entrance of the temple leads to big hall (pronaos) has
two rows each has four pillars. A big standing statue of the
“King Ramses II”, wearing the double crown (Pschent)
and holding the scepter and the flail, reclines on each one
of these pillars. The pillars and the walls of the hall which
is 30 ft height have been covered by religious scenes, texts
and the military glory of “King Ramses II”. The
most interesting and famous one is of the northern wall, where
we can follow the various phases of the battle of “Kadesh”,
including the pharaoh’s military campaign against the
Hittites in the 5th year of his reign. The long epic poem,
written by the court poet “Pentaur”, is engraved
in hieroglyphics both here and on the walls of the other temples,
such as “Luxor” and “Karnak”.
The phenomenon that made this temple different from the
other ancient Egyptian ones is the entrance of the sunlight
twice a year in the early morning to the sacrarium to reach
the four statues illuminating this dark deep place in the
rock that is 65 meters far from the principal entrance of
In 1874, the explorer Miss “Emilda Edwards”
and her team observed this phenomenon and recorded it in her
book published in 1899 (Thousand Mile on the River Nile) as
“At sunrise, the sacrarium statues become of an incredible
effect and are covered by a beautiful corona of fear and veneration.
If any one did not observe the falling of the sunlight on
the statues, he would doubt about its big effect accurately
calculated according to the astronomy and arithmatic of ancient
Egyptians. This is because the direction of the temple was
accurately calculated for a certain angle to receive these
radiation on the four statues faces”.
In 6:25 A.M. in 21st of February or 5:55 A.M. in 21st of
October in every year, the sunlight enters smoothly on the
King Ramses’s face hugging and kissing him. A flux of
light irradiates the King’s face in his chamber located
inside the feared temple heart. A feeling of fear and a small
pulse vibrate your heart as if the light catch you perturb
your depth by a magic obscure force. What a magic?! and what
an obscurity perturb your existence as you are living a miracle
Then, the sunlight is spread soon to be a bundle of light
illuminating the four statues faces inside the sacrarium.
It is known that as a result of the motion of the earth
around the sun in a semi-circular orbit, there is an apparent
motion of the sun through what is called the celestial zodiac
circle that is a circle declines by 23.5° on what is called
the celestial equator. So, the position of the sunrise varies
daily on the horizon in an interval lies between –23.5°
and 23.5° from the real east which the sun rises from
only on 21st of March and 23rd of September of the year (they
are called the equinoxes or the beginning of the spring and
Autumn seasons respectively). In the Spring and the Autumn
seasons, the sun rises from a position declines from the east
by some degrees north. This declination reaches its maximum
on 21st of June (the beginning of the Summer season) and will
be 23.5° north. On the other hand, in the Autumn and Winter
seasons, the sun rises from a position declines from the east
by some degrees south. This declination reaches its maximum
on 21st of December (the beginning of the Winter season) and
will be 23.5° south. Accordingly, if we have a long path
directed to the east or declined to it by an angle 27.5°
north or south as a maximum and closed from the west, the
sunlight will illuminate the closed wall twice a year.
So, it is normal to find the sunlight enters Abu Simbel
temple and hit the four statues in the sacrarium perpendicularly
twice a year because its axis declines on the real east by
an angle of 10.5° south.
But the miracle appears here if the two days of illumination
are selected and determined before the sculpture process.
This is because it needs a complete knowledge of the astronomy
basis and many calculations to determine the declination of
the axis of the temple from the real east. Also, the miracle
appears in the perfect straight axis along a distance of 65
meters cut in the rock.
Although there is no historical references assure this,
many people say that the two days, 21st February and 21st
October are the birth and the enthronement days of “King
Ramses II”. Also, many references assured that the origin
of the idea of building Abu Simbel temple was of “King
Seti I” (King Ramses II’s father). Moreover, it
was found that a big internal part of this temple has been
cut before “King Ramses II” enthronement.
We suggest here that those two days are representing both
the beginning of the Agriculture Season (21st of October),
after the water of River Nile been uncovered, and the beginning
of the Harvest Season (21st of February) for some eaten green
crops like onion and green bean. So, they were very important
days in the ancient Egyptian man when the land was planted
once a year in the system of irrigation by basins.
We are hoping from the tourism announcement to be accurate
and scientific, especially because the history and antiques
tourist is a well-educated one not that fool who some people
think. So, if the announcement was not built on a true scientific
and historical basis and facts, it might lead to an opposite
results because, in this case, it will be a kind of lie.
Now, we will go to the geological report about the temple
prepared by a French consultative office according to a request
from the Egyptian government and the UNISCO published in Paris
in October 1960. This report states that there is a strong
probability that the great temple axis was not advisedly selected
by the ancient Egyptian architectures but they were pushed
to select it as a result of the geological structure inside
the rocks. The report also mentions that this is not a unique
case, but the same thing occurred to the temple of “Hathour”
(the ancient Egyptian goddess of the love and beauty). This
means that the ancient Egyptians were also pushed to select
the temple axis.
Sun was the first god for the ancient Egyptians and the
Solar disc “Ra” was their greatest god. They founded
the temples for it and joined its name to theirs. Also, they
made the city of “Heliopolis” or “Ain Shams”
as a center for its worship. So, the main purpose of cutting
of “Abu Simbel” temple in a rock mountain in a
such far place is the worship of the sun at the time of its
rise. Also, we can say that the ancient Egyptians were interested
with the following of the sun motion through the other stars
and observing it accurately and regularly.
There are many evidences show their observations accuracy
and their leading the other civilizations in the celestial
bodies observing and studying a deep study based on regular
accurate observations and a great knowledge of mathematical
First: They used an accurate astronomical calendar since
the old era. This calendar was based on the sidereal year
as a basic unit in the time measurement. Also, they measured
its length (365.25 days) by the phenomenon of Burning Sunrise
of the star Sirius which was occurring at the time of the
floods of the River Nile. Their paints evident that they knew
this before pyramids building. They invented the civil year
and divided it into 12 months each has 30 days, and finally
they used to add 5 or 6 additional days (called “Al-
Nassea” in Egypt) to complete the year. On the other
hand, the other contemporaneous (Greeks, Romans and Assyrians)
were hitting at random in many trails to join the beginning
of the lunar months with the civil ones.
Second: They built the pyramids as their kings tombs because
they believed with the revival after death. It can be noticed
that the Giza pyramids were built at latitude 30° N on
the edge of the rock plane not in its center. The sides of
their bases coincide with the original directions with an
error does not exceed 5? of arc measured by the recent instruments.
Their sides are equal with an error of 20 cm and their internal
inclined paths coincide with the Meridian. So, many astronomers
deduced that the internal paths were used as star observation
instruments. Also, they deduced that the Sirius light was
perpendicular on the southern face of the biggest pyramids
at 2300 B.C.. This accuracy in the direction determination,
as measured by its difficulty nowadays by using the recent
instruments, is an evidence that the ancient Egyptian priests
who were surprising on the pyramids building, were using the
astronomical observations in this operation.
Also, there are evidences which prove the ancient Egyptians
care of studying the celestial objects like the pictures of
the star clusters by which the ceiling of “Dandara”
temple is decorated, and which are found now in the “Lover
Museum” in Paris. Also, there are many paints on its
wall show the day and the night hours, moon faces and the
path of the sun through the stars.
We designed a computer program for “Abu Simbel”
temple and fed it by an astronomical, geographical and topographical
data for calculating the altitude and azimuth of the sun for
every day of the year. Also, we calculated the azimuth of
the sun for the latitudes of ancient Egypt from 20° N
to 35° N.
The calculations showed that the azimuth of the sun for
the two days 21st of February and 21st of October gets narrower
as we go to the south. For example, it is 9.2´ for “Memphis”,
7.5´ for “Thebes” and 6.3´ for “Abu
Simbel”. This leads us to say that the selection of
building such a temple in this place may be referred to astronomical
and architectural reasons besides the holiness of the place.
(The azimuth of the sun is the angle of deflection of the
sun about the geographical north measured towards the east
direction). This angle has to be absolutely coincident with
the direction of the temple axis on both 21st of February
and 21st of October to enable the solar ray falls on the sacrarium
at sunrise. We know that the deflection angle of the temple
axis about the geographical north was 100° 33? 33? measured
towards the east direction before the temple rescue and its
transition to the top of the plateau during the 1960s of this
century to save it from sinking in the High Dam Lake. Also,
we have to say that the temple transition and reconstructing
process was done accurately which is considered to be a wonderful
geometrical and architectural work did not occurred before.
Also, the calculations showed the sun has to rise on Abu
Simble temple on 21st of February in 6:22 A. M. if there is
no topographical obstacle in the eastern horizon. But in the
reality, the phenomenon occurs at 6:26 A. M. at which the
azimuth of the sun coincides with the deflection angle of
the temple axis. After these four additional minutes, the
sun rises 34? of arc above the horizon so that the hills lying
in the eastern bank of the River Nile do not obstruct its
rays from reaching the temple and then the sacrarium. So,
there is a relation between the height of the eastern bank
hills and the deflection angle of the temple.
These calculations assure that the direction of the temple
axis was accurately selected and previously determined before
the cutting operation to enable the phenomenon to occurs on
both 21st of February and 21st of October a year. Also, we
can assure that the calculations were based on an accurate
astronomical, geographical, topological and mathematical basis
since about 3300 years.
As we mentioned, there is no sure evidence indicates that
the two days of 21st of February and 21st of October are the
days of birth and enthronement of “King Ramses II”
respectively. They are similar in the azimuth of the sun at
the rise time. Similarly, there are another similar days like
20th of February and 22nd of October, and 22nd of February
and 20th of October. The differences in azimuth for these
four days do not exceed 20? of arc. Those days, besides the
two days of 21st of February and 21st of October, may have
an importance in the ancient Egyptian history.
Also, we have to say that the temple axis direction is slightly
different from that in the time of its building since 3300
years. This direction is probably changed by about 20? of
arc due to astronomical reasons (like variation of the Polaris
star position in a very small circle around the earth real
north pole every 26000 years and the ancient Egyptian astronomers
observations were based on the observations of this star).
But this is not the most important thing because this effect
is so small. The most effective reason is the crust motion
in Egypt as a result of “Plate Tectonic Theory”.
This effect has been proved by the recent geophysical studies
that used the earth gravitational force around the High Dam
Lake and the recent space studies using lasers in artificial
satellite observations used in the geodesy studies. Also,
there is an old earthquake activity in this area due to the
“Kalabsha” natural crack. In 1210 B.C., an earthquake
occurred and leaded to the destruction of one statue of the
four colossal ones of the temple facade during the reign of
“King Seti II”. This king repaired the first of
the two statues on the north of the portal which has damage
signs began to appear.
Also, As we mentioned, pyramids bases sides coincide with
the original directions with an error does not exceed 5? of
arc measured by the modern instruments. There are many recent
studies indicate that this slight difference is not due to
a defect in the building or a mistake by the ancient architectures
but due to the crust motion in the lower Egypt. This motion
was in a larger scale in the Upper Egypt.